By J. Rasarus. Anderson University. 2019.
Rinse urine collection container after each measured void in order to prevent an increased gamma count in subsequent voided specimens cheap kamagra polo uk erectile dysfunction caused by anabolic steroids. If the patient starts and stops voiding several times kamagra polo 100 mg on line erectile dysfunction at age 33, record voiding time as the end of the last void. Each minute of inaccuracy can effect the accuracy of the results by as much as 3%. Urine specimens should also be labeled with the total urine volume for that period. Give patient water replacement equal to voided volume collected at end of period #2. Measure urine accurately and then pour an aliquot of urine into the plastic transport tube. Put counting tubes in gamma well counting racks in following order: 1,2 Water background 3,4 Urine background 5,6 Urine sample period 1 7,8 Urine sample period 2 9,10 Urine sample period 3 11,12 Plasma background 13,14 Plasma sample period1 15,16 Plasma sample period 2 17,18 Plasma sample period 3 125 4. Select I-Glofil protocol on gamma well counter and start counting: Window: 15-80 keV Preset time: 2 minutes 4. The bench technologist will review all results for clerical and analytical errors, document in the Lab Log Book and bring to the attention of the supervisor. Every test is reviewed by the laboratory supervisor and the final report is reviewed and signed by a nuclear medicine physician. Pylori is thought to be the causative agent for peptic ulcer disease in approximately 90% of affected patients, and the eradication of H. Pylori infection reduces the recurrence rate of peptic ulcer disease dramatically. The urease enzyme is not present in mammalian cells, so the presence of urease in the stomach is evidence that bacteria are present. Examination Time: 20 minutes for the patient Patient Preparation (when scheduling): 1. Patient should be off proton pump inhibitors for 2 weeks: Prilosec (omperazole), Prevacid/PrevPac (lansoprazole), and Protonix (pantoprazole). Pediatric patients must be able to swallow the intact capsule and blow through a straw. Marking pen Calibration: A positive and a negative standard are supplied by the manufacturer. To avoid contamination by bacteria in the mouth, the capsule should be swallowed intact. Label balloon, fill in breath test report form, and ensure that all materials are present. At 10 minutes, as the patient to completely inflate the balloon via the inserted straw. Complete the report form for sample and blank dpm and calculate the sample background- corrected counts by subtracting the blank dpm from the sample dpm. The Bench technologist will review all results for clerical and analytical errors, document in t he Lab Log Book and review the report with the Laboratory supervisor. Report turnaround time: same day results communicated to the referring physician Interpretation and Limitations of Results (10 minute sample): <50 dpm Negative for Helicobacter pylori 50-199 dpm Indeterminate for Helicobacter pylori >199 dpm Positive for Helicobacter pylori The indeterminate result should be evaluated by repeating the test or using an alternative diagnostic method. If repeat breath testing is undertaken, careful history to exclude confounding factors should be obtained. If confounding factors are identified, wait an appropriate time before repeating the test. Methodological validation and clinical usefulness of carbon-14- urea breath test for documentation of presence and eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection. If repeat breath testing is undertaken, careful history to exclude confounding factors should be obtained. If confounding factors are identified, wait an appropriate time before repeating the test. Food in stomach; Unknown Isotope may not come into contact with gastroparesis, bezoar mucosa; patient my be achlorhydric. Dictation: A breath sample was collected tem minutes after ingestion of 1 uCi of C14-urea and count rate determined using a liquid scintillation chamber. Therapy Hyperthyroidism 131I Na I 6-60 mCi Thyroid cancer 131I Na I 29-330 mCi Bone mets 59Strontium 3-5 mCi Bone mets 153Samarium 10 mCi Myeloma 32P sodium phosphate 3-7 mCi Various 32P chromic phosphate 0. However, it is generally preferred that they be placed in such a room to decrease dose to personnel. Its 16,000 members are physicians, technologists and scientists specializing in the research and practice of nuclear medicine. In addition to publishing journals, newsletters and books, the Society also sponsors international meetings and workshops designed to increase the competencies of nuclear medicine practitioners and to promote new advances in the science of nuclear medicine. Existing procedure guidelines will be reviewed for revision or renewal, as appropriate, on their fifth anniversary or sooner, if indicated. The procedure guidelines recognize that the safe and effective use of diagnostic nuclear medicine imaging requires specific training, skills, and techniques, as described in each document. Reproduction or modification of the published procedure guideline by those entities not providing these services is not authorized. They are not inflexible rules or requirements of practice and are not intended, nor should they be used, to establish a legal standard of care. The ultimate judgment regarding the propriety of any specific procedure or course of action must be made by the physician or medical physicist in light of all the circumstances presented. Thus, an approach that differs from the guidelines, standing alone, does not necessarily imply that the approach was below the standard of care. To the contrary, a conscientious practitioner may responsibly adopt a course of action different from that set forth in the guidelines when, in the reasonable judgment of the practitioner, such course of action is indicated by the condition of the patient, limitations of available resources, or advances in knowledge or technology subsequent to publication of the guidelines. The variety and complexity of human conditions make it impossible to always reach the most appropriate diagnosis or to predict with certainty a particular response to treatment. Therefore, it should be recognized that adherence to these guidelines will not assure an accurate diagnosis or a successful outcome. All that should be expected is that the practitioner will follow a reasonable course of action based on current knowledge, available resources, and the needs of the patient to deliver effective and safe medical care. The sole purpose of these guidelines is to assist practitioners in achieving this objective. Variable institutional factors and individual patient considerations make it impossible to create procedures applicable to all situations, or for all patients. Na18F was approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration in 1972, but has been listed as a discontinued drug since 1984. Several clinical trials are currently using Na18F with Investigational New Drug exemptions. At the present time, Na18F is currently manufactured and distributed for clinical use by authorized user prescription under state laws of pharmacy. Insufficientinformationexiststorecommendthefollowingindicationsinallpatients, but may be appropriate in certain individuals: 1. Back pain (19,20) and otherwise unexplained bone pain (21) Child abuse (22,23) Abnormal radiographic or laboratory findings Osteomyelitis Trauma Inflammatory and Degenerative Arthritis Avascular Necrosis (24,25) Osteonecrosis of the mandible (26,27) Condylar hyperplasia (28,29) Metabolic bone disease (30) Paget’s disease (31) Bone graft viability (32) Complications of prosthetic joints (33,34) Reflex sympathetic dystrophy. Distribution of osteoblastic activity prior to administration of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals for treating bone pain.
Stretches Ipsilateral internal rotators buy kamagra polo on line amex impotence sexual dysfunction, quadratus lumborum purchase 100 mg kamagra polo with amex erectile dysfunction evaluation, lumbar factors/contralateral external rotators/dorsiﬂexors Compresses (tangential force) Ipsilateral gluteus maximus/contralateral lateral annulus + facet Decompresses Ipsilateral lateral aspect of annulus + facet Works Contralateral quadratus lumborum and obliques Base of support Ipsilateral shin/foot/hand – thorn in foot, tetrapod vs biped loading Indian sit Feature: Stretches adductors (facilitated)/aerial/ability to Prayer/meditation: remove thorns ± tend to soles Hindu/Buddhist Stretches Adductors/internal rotators, including piriformis/upper hamstrings/anterior hip capsule Compresses (tangential force) Ischial tuberosities/prostate Decompresses Knee/lateral subtalar joint Works Lumbar erectors/(? Alfredson & Ohberg ischemic environment within the tendon, explaining (2002) suggest that this may be due to a process of the dramatic success of their eccentric training proto- neovascularization and they have demonstrated that col for presurgical cases of Achilles tendinopathy. Chapter 9 • Rehabilitation and Re-education (Movement) Approaches 375 Therefore, far from Schleip’s (2003b) suggestion that what towards ﬂexion and therefore a reduction inhibition of capillary blood ﬂow may be counterpro- of lordotic curve may have provided optimal ductive to healing, it may in fact facilitate healing or rebalancing. The high kneel and full For the modern environment, it may be that a slight squat would be particularly effective for inducing bias toward rest postures enhancing lumbar exten- ischemia in the Achilles tendon and all of the arche- sion may be more beneﬁcial for the hypothetical typal postures (high/low/side-kneel, cross-legged ‘average’ person. There are devices that have been sitting, full squat, quadruped) – bar the long sit – developed to counteract the ﬂexion bias of modern would be effective for inducing ischemia in the patella lifestyles such as the prone prop – though many will tendon. Archetypal postures and movement Other postures that may be considered archetypal rest postures include supine lying (as described un- Because each of the archetypal rest postures induces der instinctive sleep postures), side-lying with head stretch to a number of different tissues, each posture propped, or lying prone with upper body propped on will become uncomfortable after a given period of elbows. This results in the inclination to move, described above (see ‘Instinctive sleep postures’), the which is a functional thing to do. Far from discomfort second has fewer biomechanical beneﬁts as it works being the problem with archetypal rest postures, it is against the strong drive of the righting reﬂex of the the solution to avoiding musculoskeletal damage and optic, otic and occlusal planes, as well as stressing the dysfunction. In fact, the prone achieved more efﬁciently by putting stretch through propped position is commonly used by manual thera- the passive subsystem (sacrotuberous ligament and pists in rehabilitation of disc pain patients (posterior thoracolumbar fascia). Thus, as argued by typal postures is the fact that there is little doubt these Vleeming (2003), it is sitting that is dysfunctional – not postures were inextricably a part of how Homo leg crossing! Archetypal postures and lordosis Moreover, returning to the idea that stretching to warm up for a sport or prevent an injury simply has The astute observer may note that all of the archetypal no foundation in nature, equally unnatural is sitting postures, bar the kneeling postures, result in some in one single posture for 8 or more hours per day. And what’s even better, is that using undergone compressive (axial ﬂexion) loads with archetypal postures costs nothing and can be easily each heel strike and weight-bearing phase of gait. A set of rest postures biased some- mental’ stretching described in sports and exercise 376 Naturopathic Physical Medicine science (Alter 2004). Rather than discussing the Primal patterns optimal duration to stretch, it should be apparent by In studies of different cultures that exhibit longevity, now that the optimal stretch time – particularly in the many disparate health and lifestyle factors appear to context of archetypal rest and instinctive sleep pos- support their health successes. A moderate to high tures – is the length of time it is comfortable to hold level of daily activity is one of several common links it. When the discomfort becomes sufﬁcient for the between such cultures (Buettner 2005). This activities, whether involving walking to collect water, is utilization of the nervous system in the role for working in the ﬁelds, or hunting and gathering, all which it was designed. It is suggested that such devel- will incorporate multiple aspects of the primal opmental stretching stimulates the Golgi receptors patterns. Chek describes seven different primal pat- terns, the last being gait with the three subgroups of walking, jogging and running, each with their own motor program (P Chek, personal communication, 1993, Chek 2000a). Primal patterns are used in exercise kinesiology to understand more about how an athlete moves within their environment – whether that environment is competitive or not. In terms of the primal patterns as biomechanical attractors, it is reasonable to suggest that gait could be termed a primary dynamic attractor with the other six patterns as secondary dynamic attractors. The rationale for this is that gait was utilized for many hours each day in the nomadic ancestral environment, whereas powerful lunging, twisting, pushing, pulling, Figure 9. If the load The squat is behind the legs (a hack squat) or resting atop of the The squat pattern as a primal pattern should be dif- shoulders and cervicothoracic region of the spine, this ferentiated from the squat used as an archetypal (rest) tends to stress the lumbar erectors more – as now the posture. As a primal pattern, the squat is primarily load is trying to pull the body posteriorly and so to used for lifting, for sitting and for jumping and, as compensate the trunk must be inclined forwards such, is commonly only utilized to a depth where the somewhat. In archetypal An understanding of these simple principles and the postures, the squat is a rest posture and a defecation wherewithal to select the most ‘speciﬁc’ loading posture, hence is usually ‘full’ in nature with the parameter to the patient’s sport or activity of daily back of the thighs in contact with the calves and the living – as well as their muscle imbalance pattern – front of the thighs in full contact with the abdominal makes for a more effective exercise prescription. The squat primarily works the deep longitudinal The squat is an important movement skill allowing system and the posterior oblique sling (see sling the arms to reach down close to the ground to lift systems above). The bend pattern is an important movement skill and If, during the squat, the load is between the legs brings with it much controversy. There are two schools (known as a Jefferson squat), or resting on the sternum of thought with regard to the bend pattern, mainly Figure 9. The higher the = Adaption load, the less duration is required to create an adaptation. However, if the duration is too long = Maladaption or the load is too high, maladaption will occur (i. Examples are given: (a) = Examples (see legend) doing a corrective exercise to train the stability muscles for only 2 minutes’ duration means the d white line does not move outside of the black dotted line, so that little or no adaption will take place. A postural exercise must have a minimum of 3–5 minutes of time under tension to have a training effect on the type 1 muscle c ﬁbers. Example (b): a strength endurance stimulus must last for a shorter duration than the pure endurance training, and the load will be higher. Example (c): strength conditioning requires shorter duration than strength–endurance, with higher loads. Example (d): power conditioning requires extremely short duration, explosive exercise, with even higher loads. Example (e): a very low Duration load activity such as sitting may be carried out for such a long duration that it exceeds the body’s adaptive capacity and results in breakdown (see Chapter 2 for more on adaptation) e a 378 Naturopathic Physical Medicine contested between Gracovetsky (1988) and McGill lifter will typically use a squat pattern to lift the bar (2002). This approach is based on many people in their activities of daily living where a the study of Olympic power lifters who, Gracovetsky squat is impractical. Take, for example, a new mother calculated, could not possibly lift the loads they were who has to spend a signiﬁcant portion of time chang- lifting with their lumbar erectors alone; they needed ing her new baby’s nappy (diaper), dressing and to use their hip extensors (hamstrings and gluteal undressing the baby, bathing the baby and putting the group) via their thoracolumbar fascia to lift through baby into and out of its cot. This results in a more equal load distribution the baby is often done on a changing table or on a bed through the three-column system of the spine (the with a solid side, bathing the baby also means reach- disc and bilateral facets). Liebenson supports McGill’s ing over the lip of the bath with little scope to bend contention, as does Chek. Chek (2002) provides a useful and rational clinical With all that relaxin in her system and an abdominal insight into these two philosophies. If the lift starts wall that has undergone a signiﬁcant laying down of from a neutral spinal position (while ﬂexed at the hips sarcomeres during pregnancy (i. To lift a ﬂoor that may have been recently traumatized, this very heavy load from this position may result in some means that the new mother had better know how to lumbar ﬂexion (as maintained by Gracovetsky), but at bend with a competent level of skill. The primary muscle migrates forwards into ﬂexion to allow for tensioning groups involved in power generation are the ham- of the posterior ligamentous system, at least the strings, the gluteals (to a lesser extent) and the erector lumbar erectors are now working eccentrically. The quadriceps are far less actively involved eccentric contraction muscles are approximately 1. Additionally, if you’re than around 20° and should remain relatively static able to breathe while lifting the load, this implies that compared to the pattern in the squat (Hodges 1999). It should, The lunge however, be borne in mind that connective tissue The lunge pattern is most commonly utilized in sports creep is both time and load dependent. Therefore, if and can be viewed as a descent of the running gait someone lifts a 5 kg load across 4 seconds 100 times pattern.
Eleva- tion of the head of the bed kamagra polo 100mg lowest price what causes erectile dysfunction treatment, mild sedation order kamagra polo discount impotence pumps, and analgesics (for headache) may suffice. The blood pressure should be reduced to approximately 160/100 mm Hg, using rap- idly titratable, parenteral medications if necessary. The timing and outcome of sur- gical intervention are determined by the patient’s clinical grade and medical stability, among other factors. Is admission medically justified for all patients with acute stroke or transient ischemic attack? Part F: Dizziness and Vertigo Basic Anatomy • The vestibular system provides input to the brain regarding movement of the head. The vestibular portion of the 8th cranial nerve is composed of the utricle, the saccule, and three semicircular canals that lie at right angles to each other. Abnormal information, or improper integration, results in a complaint of “dizziness” or vertigo. Scope of the Problem • The complaint of “dizziness” can be attributed to numerous disorders, both benign and life-threatening. For patients with true vertigo, the next task is to determine the source of the symptoms; is it a peripheral or central vestibular process? Central lesions involve the vestibular nuclei (located in the brainstem) and their connections (e. Patients with nonvestibular lesions explain the feeling as one of spinning inside the head, near-faint, floating, swimming in the head, or giddiness. Peripheral vestibular disorders are associated with intermittent episodes of vertigo that are sud- den, brief, and severe; symptoms from central lesions have a more gradual onset, last longer, and are less intense. Pe- ripheral lesions are commonly initiated by turning the head to the side or tilting the head up, whereas central causes are not positional. Cervical vertigo refers to the symptom complex of neck pain, vertigo, and nystagmus that is worse with movement of the neck. Peripheral vestibular lesions are commonly associated with nausea or vomiting; hearing loss, tinnitus, or ear fullness; other neurologic deficits (e. Loss of coordination between attacks indicates 8th cranial nerve or brainstem disease. Vestibular neuritis and acute labyrinthitis are com- monly preceded by a viral illness. Post-traumatic posi- tional vertigo, labyrinthine concussion, and perilymphatic fistula are all caused by head trauma. A rapid, twisting injury of the neck can cause vertebral artery dissection or occlusion. Uremia, Parkinson’s disease, dia- betes, and chronic alcohol abuse are causes of peripheral neuropathy and orthostasis. Frequently, elderly patients with poor vision and sensa- tion—especially after starting sedating medications—describe a feeling of being off balance and stumbling (dysequilibrium), without true vertigo or presyncopal symptoms. Patients with ill-defined light-headedness often have extensive work-ups without an explanation for their symptoms. With the patient looking straight forward, ensure that the eyes are properly aligned. Funduscopic exam may reveal papilledema, suggesting increased intracranial pressure from a mass lesion (usually in the posterior fossa). Nystagmus is described by the position of gaze in which it is pro- voked and the direction of the fast component. Nystagmus associated with pe- ripheral disorders is generally horizontal or rotatory and does not change direc- tions, but is more pronounced when the patient looks in the direction of the fast component (away from the involved side). The patient with a cerebellopontine angle tumor may have a depressed corneal reflex or facial nerve palsy ipsilateral to the lesion. These include finger-to-nose, finger-tapping and toe tapping, rapid alternat- ing movements, and heel-knee-shin. In contrast, patients with cerebellar pathology are unable to compensate with visual cues and are unsteady with eyes open or closed. Multiple sclerosis, vitamin B12 deficiency, and focal brainstem lesions are associated with hyperactive reflexes and the Babinski sign. Slowly return the patient to a sitting posi- tion and repeat the procedure with the head turned 45 degrees horizontally. Slowly return the patient to sitting with the head still at a 45-degree angle; repeat the procedure with the head turned to the other side. Neurologic Emergencies 113 • Nystagmus associated with a peripheral vestibular disorder has a latency period (i. In contrast, central vertigo is typically not positional, has no latency period, does not fatigue or habituate, and is not suppressed by visual fixation. Differential Diagnosis • Syncope and near-syncope • Hypovolemia from any cause • Acute coronary syndrome • Intoxication • Hyperventilation syndrome • Anxiety and affective disorder • Dysequalibrium • Metabolic disorders • Sepsis • Intracranial pressure Treatment • Peripheral Vestibular Disorders • Vestibular suppressants are useful in the acute period. The patient should assume a position with his head that causes nystagmus, and then attempt to focus the eyes and move them in a position that maximizes his symptoms. As the nystagmus di- minishes, the patient should begin to move the head up and down or from side to side while visually fixating on a target. He should attempt to stand and walk while the nystagmus is still present, and (as symptoms improve) should move the head from side to side or up and down while walking (first slowly, then quickly in all directions). Note that pa- tients may have an increase of symptoms as a result of repositioning maneuvers. Both disorders are associated with acute onset vertigo and nystagmus, nausea, and vomiting that may last for 2 wk. The distinction between the two is based on the presence (labyrinthitis) or absence (neuritis) of concomitant hearing loss or tinntus. Prednisone and acyclovir have been found to facilitate recovery, if treatment is initiated within 3 days (com- pared to more than 7 days) after symptom onset. It is characterized by acute attacks of vertigo and ear pressure lasting hours, asso- ciated with tinnitus and sensorineural hearing loss. In addition to vestibulosuppressants, patients may benefit from restricted sodium, caffeine, and nicotine intake. He may benefit from a referral for vision refraction or rehabilitation, as indicated by his deficits. Disposition • Patients with neurologic deficits or suspected central disorders should be admitted. Pa- tients with intractable vomiting or severe dehydration may require inpatient treatment. Seizure may be the sole presenting symptom of a life-threatening ill- ness requiring immediate treatment. The outward expres- sion of a seizure may take many forms: • Generalized seizures involve a loss of consciousness. The symptoms may 116 Emergency Medicine sponteously resolve, recur, spread to contiguous cortical regions (jacksonian march), or become secondarily generalized. The episode classically begins with a blank stare, and (occasionally) loss of muscle tone, resulting in a fall.
The community midwife recog- labor ward and obstetric theaters buy generic kamagra polo 100mg online erectile dysfunction treatment in rawalpindi, and intro- second stage being described order cheap kamagra polo erectile dysfunction herbal supplements, as like trying to fear they were able to share something that nized her distress and offered her support. The ducing the woman (and partner, if present) to get ‘something the size of a melon through an was so profound to them, this fear and dread woman sobbed uncontrollably as she remem- members of staff. The woman labored well and They felt that a cesarean section was their only build the trust between the midwife counselor one of a traumatic experience where she felt achieved a spontaneous vaginal birth. This fear was so great that they also and the women who were able to learn how no one had listened to her or involved her in er refection of her birth, her experience was appeared to be in denial of their pregnancy. The mid- natal depression for 2 years following the birth that people had listened to her and included years, although few in numbers, they all pre- wife counselor, with the permission of the and was treated with medication. Eventually with pressure from their ive, there were staff who felt that all women caught, because she also felt she could not go partner, they agreed to have a baby and, while have anxieties about birth and that this was through labor again. In our experience, primigravi- were overjoyed by the pregnancy, the women staff were in the minority, one cannot ignore to share her feelings with the midwife coun- das had not shared their fear with anyone, even were struck by fear and in denial, seeking the fact. They often avoided antenatal the idea of a vaginal birth as opposed to a cesar- inside of her, and felt sickened when anyone when pressure from a partner to start a family classes or only attended some of them. Although support was applied that they were able to confde that also disclosed, in the attempt not to confront the midwife counselor discussed with the was provided it was not until the 36th week they had a fear of childbirth, and in some cases their pregnancy, that they were often unable women the possibility of a vaginal birth. These of pregnancy that she dared think about ‘the this did not happen until well into the preg- to enter baby shops to look at baby equipment women often stated that they really wanted a alien’ as her baby. The common factor that they all shared or clothes, and often were unable to buy any vaginal birth but that a cesarean section was herself to walk past baby items and purchase was that in the process of giving birth and in of the items required to create a nursery. They some instances the women did not allow any- The next step was to prepare a robust care not an easy process and involved much emo- were unable to disclose this fear other than to thing into the house that could remind them plan with the women. There needs were documented in the case notes and felt that the professionals had not taken her Because this fear is profound and terrify- was also a reluctance to share their fears with within their care plans. When sharing their intense anxi- which was not the case; the baby was very to have a vaginal birth, they had a deep-rooted to fortnightly and then weekly from approxi- ety (they did not share their real fear) with a much wanted. As trying as tants agreed to write in the woman’s labor by the midwife counselor to constantly ensure behavior and early requests for cesarean sec- this may be for some health professionals, the notes that she could have a cesarean section at that communication was effective and the sup- tion. Every possibility was metic- contact with a health professional(s) who can for some women that allows emotions and the note also stated clearly that the woman ulously covered to ensure that they received give expert advice where possible and create fears to be worked through as well as clarifying suffered from tocophobia. This ‘safety net’ is the one-to-one care and support they felt they an atmosphere where the women can feel safe any distorted notions of what the room might often not used. This is especially true for the primi- how important this was to these women; how- this approach is labor intensive and throws heard and listened to without feeling judged. It is important that women with fear of child- Whilst one-to-one care is highly recom- may have long-term effects for the individual Health care workers need to realize that work- birth have access to professionals who are mended, carers must not promise women woman and her family. Honesty Not all consultants agreed to documenting women, to ensure that the appropriate profes- lines regarding counseling women in relation and trust is very important in the relationship that a cesarean section could be carried out at sional is available for advice and support. If this was the that documents information provided to help counseling to help them address their fear in a The midwife counselor should meet all the case for those women, they felt that their only support the team caring for these women, supportive manner14. Counseling support is an obstetric registrars who will be working on option was to have an elective cesarean section including the extent of the women’s fear and, the labor ward and should explore the individ- effective way to help women experience birth on ‘maternal request’. For many, this may be Midwives occasionally undertake counseling option documented in their notes needed to have a vaginal birth, but may have been sexu- 9 the frst time they have heard of tocophobia, roles beyond their training and abilities. It is necessary for midwives and health profession- In our practice, over a period of time, women nal examinations, or only female attendants; hoped that in meeting with the registrars, the als to work within their remit and not press for with tocophobia have returned to have a sec- these requests can be built into the birth plan. Tocophobia: an women were able to share this deep-rooted Health professionals need to be able to rec- ductions to members of staff who may be on unreasoning dread of childbirth. In the authors’ opinions, a far greater Little doubt exists in the minds of the medi- problem exists in that the science of nutrition cal profession and much of the public that the is relatively young in the spectra of medical connection between maternal nutrition and disciplines and often gets short shrift in the fetal outcome is important. Despite a vast body of ever, much confusion about the most effcient research into specifc dietary problems, much method to achieve an adequate nutritional of the available literature is confusing because status at the start of pregnancy, especially if a of lack of standardization of methodologies of nutritional defciency is present. No consensus study, indecision about whether specifc nutri- regarding the defnition and/or understanding ents should be evaluated alone or in combina- of ‘adequate nutrition’ exists, and even less tion, and absence of agreement as to whether uniformity of opinion is present for a defni- the dose should be tested in relation to what tion of ‘optimal nutrition’, even though some a normal person might consume in a 24-hour authorities might suggest that diet alone sup- period or as a megadose that exceeds anything ports health and longevity. The same may be said regarding optimal Beginning with birth, each of us eats foods vitamin supplementation in pregnancy, be it which are usually chosen by individuals who the type or the dose. Table 1 has been prepared have had no formal training in domestic sci- to provide health care professionals a handy ences, dietary technology, or food prepara- guide that they can share with their patients. Mothers and grandmothers sanctioned Not only are the nutrients and their respective food choices determined by local availability, budget, accessibility of refrigeration and com- doses listed, but also cited are the appropri- munity or religious practices that often stretch ate sources of the information. Any meaningful discussion Recommended Defciency effect of supplementation must address three crucial taking a folic acid supplement, taking a multi- intake for on expectant Defciency effect Nutrient pregnant women mother on offspring Source Effect of excess vitamin containing the requisite amount of issues – who to supplement, how to supple- folic acid among other constituents, or eating ment and what to supplement. This enormous effort resulted reasonable if it were possible to test for all in a 27% reduction in the incidence of neu- essential pregnancy-related vitamins, miner- ral tube defects in 1999–2000 compared to Even as recently as 10 years ago, it might fails to stress that it is ineffective and perhaps als and micronutrients in a cost effective and 1995–199624. Such testing rou- ues, but it has not been total, perhaps because vitamins, minerals and micronutrients in a acid only when they are pregnant, because tinely is not available in most hospitals where the fortifcation process was confned to wheat monograph devoted to preconception counsel- 50% of pregnancies are unintended and any the majority of deliveries are conducted. This is not the case for three important folic acid taken after the 28th day following if it were, the unpredictability of pregnancy Hispanic population consistently eat products reasons. Not fortifying corn plementing women of childbearing age is a constant warm temperature for hours before adequate folate supplementation before preg- products may not be the entire reason for the rational means of ensuring that women have consumption, may lose a signifcant, albeit nancy because (1) patients are not routinely smaller response in the American Hispanic adequate levels of essential vitamins, minerals unknown, portion of their expected values tested for folate levels, meaning that those population, but it is signifcant that the largest and micronutrients when they become preg- compared to what would have been present who are defcient are unknown, and (2) many manufacturer of corn tortillas in Mexico has nant. In the long run, such therapy is capable had they been eaten immediately or shortly patients, especially those in their second preg- voluntarily added folate fortifcation (Linda of circumventing the dietary variations that after cooking. Such food is found in cafeterias, nancy or higher, tend to come for their frst Van Horn, personal communication, July 20, exist within populations and between indi- steam lines, hotel buffets, etc. The information cited here contrasts viduals, each of whom may be convinced that exists totally apart from other issues related lowing conception because they believe they with the public health considerations relat- her particular diet is adequate, if for no other to ‘fast foods’ that are eaten shortly after their know the ‘routine’ or, in the case of grandmul- ing to food fortifcation and/or comprehensive reason than it may be prepared by someone preparation. Other problems that affect food tiparas, are burdened with childcare responsi- multivitamin products for pregnant women outside her home and/or at great expense. Moreover, physicians now recognize that provide the internationally recommended great importance, supplementing that is begun light and hormones during the growing period, that folic acid is of beneft throughout the levels of folic acid rather than relying on obtain- before pregnancy can be continued during the the need to pick fruits and vegetables in a pre- remainder of a pregnancy because of cellular ing folate and other essential vitamins, miner- pregnancy by changing to a traditional prena- ripened state for transport to the point of sale, development and synergy with B vitamins. Knowledge of the essential pregnancy- population that are marginalized, living below related requirements for specifc vitamin con- the poverty level, and who seek prenatal care The accumulated literature on vitamins, min- Functional foods stituents has increased exponentially since late in pregnancy. Folate is not the only vita- erals and micronutrients is impressive, to say 1990, and many clinicians have begun to see min that may be defcient in the general popu- the least. Terms that describe the quantity and Functional foods are provided to confer a ‘ben- the value of prescribing a ‘balanced palate’ lation, as shown by a recent national dietary variety of research and opinions might include eft’ to the diet beyond that of simple nutri- ‘staggering’ or ‘daunting’, and therein lies the of components that includes vitamins, min- survey in the United States that sampled tion. The average practitioner has little erals and micronutrients in one pill or cap- women aged 19–49 and showed that 90% had mon foods can be enhanced by several means, time or inclination to read even a small quan- sule. The catch-all term for this type of addi- supplements should be advised only when spe- necessary to anticipate the increased need for evidenced by the heterogeneity of information tives is nutraceutical, which can also be used cifc defciencies are present. This ing the vitamins, minerals and micronutri- Fibers tions, clinicians are unaware of the relative simple concept can and should be part of the ents mentioned below will add nothing to the states of defciency or adequacy of circulating counseling provided to every women of repro- clinical acumen of any health-care professional Fibers are either readily fermentable by colonic levels of vitamins, minerals and micronutri- ductive age when she has a medical encounter who may read this chapter. Simply stated, we believe that mod- ern diets can be defcient in vitamins, minerals ing a ‘mop and sponge effect’ in the colon and obstetric deliveries are not at all equipped to and micronutrients for several reasons – over- assisting in the formation of the fecal contents. In this regard, it is intake level suffcient to meet the nutrient becomes a way of life based on the recognition genetically engineered designer foods, herbal noteworthy that as of early 2009 one of the requirements of nearly all (97–98%) healthy of the inherent defciency of modern diets in products and processed foods such as cere- major worldwide producers of birth control individuals in each age group and sex. It is important to pills is adding folic acid fortifcation to each set when there are insuffcient scientifc data note that this defnition applies to all catego- pill. Indeed, it has been sug- occurs by the 28th day of embryogen- antioxidant ingredients, and a stimulant func- and yogurt; a low intake of meat; and a mod- gested that without supplementation, esis (42 days after the onset of the last tional food or ‘pharmafood’ and fbers. What has not Probiotics tive age are single and often employed, special pregnancy have been associated with been appreciated until recently is that efforts must be made as part of the counseling reduced risks for offspring with heart folate defciencies must be addressed A probiotic is defned as a ‘live microbial food process when pregnancy is desired to inform before the woman becomes pregnant, defects, especially ventricular septal supplement’ that benefcially affects the host patients that reliance on modern fast foods is because many women do not receive defects and conotruncal defects (e.