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Some randomized trials and observational studies included patient populations not 53 represented well in clinical trials cheap 100 mg lady era overnight delivery women's health clinic jefferson city mo, such as patients with thalassemia purchase discount lady era on line women's health clinic london ontario king street, patients on 131 83, 102 hemodialysis, patients with mixed cryoglobulinemia, and patients on methadone 101 maintenance. However, there was no evidence of clear difference in estimates of efficacy or safety from these studies compared to efficacy or safety of dual therapy with pegylated interferon in general. Pegylated interferons for hepatitis C Page 38 of 65 Final Report Drug Effectiveness Review Project SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION Results of this evidence review are summarized in Table 13. Summary of the evidence by key question Key Question Quality of the Conclusion Evidence 1. What is the comparative Fair to poor All trials are efficacy studies. Evidence is insufficient to effectiveness of regimens of judge comparative efficacy. Head-to-head trial data are peginterferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin sparse (two trials), short-term (8 to 12 weeks), clinically versus peginterferon alfa-2b plus diverse, and had methodological flaws. There are also no clear differences in sustained biochemical response. Data on histologic outcomes and quality of life are sparse and there are no data on other outcomes such as cirrhosis, hepatocellular cancer, liver transplant, or functional status. How does duration of treatment Fair to poor Studies evaluating effects of dose and duration are of or dosing protocols (including limited value for evaluating comparative effectiveness of weight-based or maintenance dual therapy with pegylated interferon alfa-2a versus dosing or dosing of ribavirin) affect pegylated interferon alfa-2b because none directly estimates of comparative compared effects of duration or dose between the two effectiveness? Trials comparing different doses of pegylated interferon as part of dual therapy are only available for pegylated interferon alfa-2b. Trials directly comparing different durations of therapy are available for dual therapy with pegylated interferon alfa-2a and for dual therapy with pegylated interferon alfa-2b, but are characterized by substantial clinical diversity across trials in patient populations, dosing of drugs, and/or duration of therapy. What is the comparative Fair to poor Evidence is insufficient to judge comparative safety. Head- tolerability and safety of to-head trial data are extremely sparse (one short-term trial) peginterferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin and inadequate for judging comparative safety. Indirect versus peginterferon alfa-2b plus analysis shows no significant differences in rates of ribavirin for treatment of chronic withdrawal due to adverse events or other adverse events, hepatitis C virus infection? Observational studies were almost all non-comparative and provided no additional useful information on comparative safety. Pegylated interferons for hepatitis C Page 39 of 65 Final Report Drug Effectiveness Review Project Key Question Quality of the Conclusion Evidence 3. Does the comparative effectiveness or tolerability and safety of peginterferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin versus peginterferon alfa- 2b plus ribavirin vary in patient subgroups? Race, gender, age Poor No evidence on comparative effectiveness or safety based on demographics. Evidence from indirect analysis is insufficient to conclude that dual therapy with one pegylated interferon is superior to the other for infection with specific HCV genotypes. Severity of baseline disease Poor No trials evaluated comparative effectiveness or safety in patients with higher viral loads, more severe fibrosis or inflammation, or other markers of more severe baseline HCV disease. Obese patients Poor Subgroup analyses of three trials found dual therapy with pegylated interferon alfa-2a and alfa-2b less effective at achieving an SVR in patients over 75 to 80 kg, compared to those below 75 to 80 kg. No trials have evaluated comparative effectiveness or safety of weight-based versus standardized dosing of pegylated interferon as part of dual therapy in obese patients. Indirect analysis indicates no significant differences in rates of sustained virologic response in HIV co-infected patients, though interpretation of findings is limited by clinical diversity across trials and imprecise estimates of effects. Non-responders or relapsers Poor No comparative evidence. We found insufficient evidence to determine whether dual therapy with pegylated interferon alfa-2a differs from dual therapy with pegylated interferon alfa-2b in efficacy or safety. Evaluating comparative effectiveness and safety is very challenging at this time because the only data from head-to-head trials consist of short-term virologic outcomes. In addition, estimates from indirect analyses are imprecise and may not be reliable because of differences across trials in patient populations, dosing regimens for both pegylated interferon and ribavirin, comparator therapies (dual therapy with non-pegylated interferon alfa-2a or dual therapy with non-pegylated interferon alfa-2b), and other factors. Interestingly, when indirect analyses are limited to trials comparing dual therapy with pegylated interferon alfa-2a and dual therapy with pegylated interferon alfa-2b to the same common comparator (dual therapy with non-pegylated interferon alfa-2b), the point estimate for the likelihood of achieving an SVR is identical (RR 1. The trials included in this review are also characterized by frequent methodological shortcomings. For example, nearly all of the trials used an open-label design and did not make Pegylated interferons for hepatitis C Page 40 of 65 Final Report Drug Effectiveness Review Project provisions for blinded outcomes assessment. Trials also frequently did not describe randomization or allocation concealment methods in adequate detail. In trials of antiretroviral therapy for HIV infection, which also focus on virologic outcomes, such methodological 132 shortcoming have been shown to exaggerate estimates of treatment effects. Another challenge in assessing the available evidence is that generalizability to real-world practice may be limited, as all of the trials appeared to be efficacy studies. In addition, nearly all of the trials focused on intermediate outcomes such as SVR, ETR, SBR, and histologic changes on biopsy. Although dual therapy with pegylated interferon has not been available long enough to assess outcomes such as rates of cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, mortality, or need for transplant, other outcomes such as quality of life and functional status were rarely reported. Adverse events were 133 also inconsistently reported, making it difficult to accurately assess overall benefits and harms. Results of the large (planned enrollment 2,880) IDEAL study, which are expected later in 129 2007, should provide more insight into comparative efficacy. This trial will directly compare dual therapy with pegylated interferon alfa-2a versus pegylated interferon alfa-2b. However, even though this will be by far the largest trial directly comparing pegylated interferon regimens, enrollment is limited to patients with genotype 1 infection. In addition, nonequivalent dosing and dose adjustments of ribavirin could make it difficult to determine whether findings are due to the use of pegylated interferon alfa-2a versus pegylated interferon alfa-2b, or to differences in 50 the ribavirin dosing scheme. Publication of results from the large (N>4,900) WIN-R study should help interpret potential effects of differences in ribavirin dosing on effectiveness of dual 130 therapy with pegylated interferon. Pegylated interferons for hepatitis C Page 41 of 65 Final Report Drug Effectiveness Review Project REFERENCES 1. Armstrong GL, Wasley A, Simard EP, McQuillan GM, Kuhnert WL, Alter MJ. The prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in the United States, 1999 through 2002. Recommendations for prevention and control of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and HCV-related chronic disease. Projecting future complications of chronic hepatitis C in the United States. Diagnosis, management, and treatment of hepatitis C. Hepatitis C virus genotypes and viral concentratiosn in participants of a general population survey in the United States. Side effects of therapy of hepatitis C and their management. Treatment of chronic hepatitis C: a systematic review.

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TAF is a novel prodrug of teno- fovir which has a different structure to TDF lady era 100 mg free shipping womens health quickie, reaching adequate tenofovir concen- trations in cells at a much lower dose lady era 100 mg with amex breast cancer joan lunden, which has less potential to harm kidney and bone tissue. Gilead has applied for approval (or plans to do so) of different TAF-inclu- sive versions of Truvada, Complera and Stribild. The choice of nuke backbones Until now, all classical ART regimens have contained two nucleoside or nucleotide analogs (the “nuke backbone”). This is mainly historical: nucleoside analogs were the first HIV drugs, and when PIs appeared years later, treatment with two nukes was standard. As knowledge has grown about the mitochondrial toxicity of some 76 ART NRTIs, this concept is now being questioned by an increasing number of experts (see section on Nuke-Sparing). However, data on combinations without NRTIs are still limited, and there are currently no recommendations for such strategies. The most frequently used backbones are TDF+FTC, and with some limitations, ABC+3TC. Both are available in fixed-dose combinations that can be taken once daily. AZT+3TC, the long-standing standard backbone in the nineties, is now considered an alternative. In the Gilead 903 Study, the combination TDF+3TC was not only as virologically effective as d4T+3TC, but was also much better tolerated (Gallant 2004). Since the introduction of FTC and the fixed-dose combination tablets of Truvada, Atripla, and, more recently, Complera and Stribild, tenofovir is almost always co-admin- istered with FTC, and TDF+FTC is the most frequently-used NRTI backbone. In the Gilead 934 Study (Gallant 2006), enrolling 509 ART-naïve patients, TDF+FTC was tested against AZT+3TC in an open-label design (all patients also received efavirenz). At 48 weeks, a larger proportion of patients in the TDF+FTC arm reached less than 50 copies/ml (80% versus 70%). This was even true for patients with a higher base- line viral load. The significant differences were primarily related to the poorer tol- erability of Combivir, which often resulted in the discontinuation of therapy (9% versus 4%). Virological failure and resistance mutations were approximately equal in both arms and were infrequent. After 144 weeks, lipoatrophy was less frequent in the TDF+FTC arm (Arribas 2008). In the near future, tenofovir alafenamide (TAF), a novel prodrug of tenofovir, will probably replace TDF in many patients. There is no doubt that TDF+FTC or TAF+FTC will remain the most frequently used backbone during the coming years. ABC+3TC Another frequent backbone is ABC+3TC, which is also available in a fixed-dose combination known either as Kivexa or Epzicom. The double-blind randomized CNA30024 Study showed the non-inferiority of ABC+3TC in comparison to Combivir (DeJesus 2004). In the ABCDE Study, ABC+3TC had the same efficacy as d4T+3TC, but had less toxicity (Podzamczer 2006). Over the last few years, ABC+3TC has been compared to TDF+FTC in several ran- domized studies of therapy-naïve patients (ASSERT, ACTG 5202, HEAT), as well as in treatment-experienced patients (BICOMBO, STEAL), see also the following Table. Overview of antiretroviral agents 77 As shown there, data is not consistent. ABC+3TC were equivalent to TDF+FTC in HEAT and STEAL. In contrast, ACTG 5202, ASSERT and BICOMBO showed some differences to the disadvantage of ABC+3TC. Efficacy of TDF+FTC seems to be better in highly viremic patients (Sax 2011) although a recent analysis has suggested that this was not due to a lower antiviral potency of ABC+3TC. Severe side effects are slightly more frequent under ABC+3TC. However, in studies like BICOMBO and ACTG 5202, HLA testing was not performed, which significantly reduces abacavir HSR and which is now routine testing. It must be stressed that overall, results of TDF+FTC and ABC+3TC do not vary greatly despite the very different settings. At least two studies did not see significant differences between these two backbones (Curran 2011, McComsey 2011). In some randomized studies, lipid changes improved after switch from ABC+3TC to TDF+FTC (Behrens 2012, Campo 2013, Moyle 2015). In contrast, adverse events affecting bone density were more frequently seen with TDF+FTC (Haskelberg 2012, Rasmussen 2012, Negredo 2015). On KVX overall more (Stellbrink 20010) plus EFV AEs, but less AEs of bone and kidney Pretreated patients STEAL Open label (n=357) Same efficacy, but more AEs on KVX (i. There is more experience with this combination than with any other. The resistance profile is favorable: the M184V mutation that frequently develops during 3TC treatment increases sensitivity to AZT. Although the licensing study for Combivir showed no difference in toxicity (Eron 2000), in our experience the 300 mg AZT dose in Combivir is too high for some patients and can lead to anemia. In such cases, it is worth trying AZT+3TC as individual components, so that the dose of AZT can be reduced to 250 mg BID. AZT+3TC has comparable efficacy to d4T+3TC or to AZT+FTC (Benson 2004). The ACTG 384 Study showed superiority of AZT+3TC over d4T+ddI (Robbins 2003, Shafer 2003). However, this notion did change over time: while early results suggested a lower rate of lipoatrophy (Molina 1999), the development of lipoatrophy with AZT+3TC occurred only slightly later than with d4T+ddI. AZT+3TC was shown to be less effective and less well-tolerated than TDF+FTC in the GS-934 study (Gallant 2006, Pozniak 2006). Another large ACTG study also showed that it was less well- 78 ART tolerated (Campbell 2011). Compared to ABC+3TC, immune reconstitution may be less impressive (DeJesus 2004). Facing these potential disadvantages and the fact that once daily dosing is not possible, most guidelines no longer recommend AZT+3TC as a preferred backbone in treatment-naïve patients. Some studies suggest a comparable efficacy (and better tolerability) versus AZT+3TC (Berenguer 2008). However, keeping in mind the long-term toxicity of ddI, we would only recommend ddI+3TC when there are significant reasons to not use TDF+FTC or ABC+3TC. Poor and not-recommended backbones It should be noted that the majority of the clinical trials cited above were conducted in treatment-naïve patients. In pretreated patients, other backbones may be neces- sary due to resistance or lack of tolerability.

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Dotted lines represent 95% molecular weights ranging from 800 to 20 000 kDa order generic lady era online women's health center dallas, which can be confidence intervals lady era 100 mg fast delivery breast cancer 8 rounds of chemo. Low-resolution agarose (dashed horizontal line) that was reached for VWF:RCo levels 30 gels distinguish VWF multimers, which are conventionally indi- IU/dL. More detailed information is provided in Federici et al. In VWD1, 526 American Society of Hematology Figure 3. Distribution of levels of VWF:RCo and FVIII:C activities in the entire cohort of 796 patients included in RENAWI-2. Severe cases (pink area) are characterized by the lowest levels of activities (VWF:RCo 10 and FVIII:C 20 IU/dL); moderate cases (light blue) by the moderately reduced levels of activities (VWF:RCo 10-30 and FVIII:C 20-40 IU/dL); mild cases (yellow) by the less reduced levels of activities (VWF:RCo 31-55 and FVIII:C 40 IU/dL). Note the extreme heterogeneity within VWD1, VWD2A, VWD2B, and VWD2M. More detailed information is provided in Federici et al. Such patients should be shifted to the use of VWD2A, the high- and intermediate-molecular-weight multimers VWF/FVIII concentrates. Most VWD2B show the loss of high-molecular-weight multimers, although there are patients with relatively normal The VWF binding assay to FVIII (VWF:FVIIIB) measures the multimers. In this assay, anti-VWF antibody is gels can be useful to further characterize patients with VWD2A coated on wells of a microtiter plate and test plasma is added to the (VWD2A subtypes IIC, IID, IIE, IIF, IIG, and IIH), as described wells. The FVIII/VWF complex in plasma is bound by the antibody, previously. Excess recombinant FVIII (rFVIII) is then added The VWF propeptide (VWFpp) and VWF proteins remain noncova- and, after removal of unbound rFVIII, the VWF and the bound lently associated and stored in alpha-granules of megakaryocytes/ rFVIII are assayed. In plasma, VWFpp and mature multimers dissociate and circulate independently. VWFpp circulates in plasma as a ho- modimer with a half-life of 2-3 hours, whereas mature VWF Additional, automatic, and novel assays for circulates with a half-life of 8-12 hours. However, in rare patients carries no risk of transmitting blood-borne infectious agents. Several diagnostics companies have produced more diagnosis to establish the individual patterns of biological response reliable reagents and assays that can be automated on common and to predict clinical efficacy during bleeding because the re- photo-optical coagulation analyzers. This allows turbidimetric mea- sponses in a given patient are consistent on different occasions. The first commercially available A DDAVP challenge test is an important tool for VWD manage- automated VWF:RCo was produced by Siemens (BC VWF reagent) ment because VWD patients can be divided according to their using Siemens BCS analyzers. Instrumentation Laboratory has biological response into 3 different groups: short half-life, respon- developed an improved version of the VWF:RCo assay; recombi- sive, not responsive. Using such a definition of “clinical severity” based on the levels of defective VWF:RCo and FVIII:C, 3 different groups of VWD could be identified in the 796 Italian patients according to the inclusion criteria of RENAWI-2,31 as shown in Figure 3. Considering the extreme heterogeneity of VWD, the “severe forms of VWD” might represent the “tip of the iceberg” overlying a large number of patients with moderate to mild VWF defects (Figure 4). Although no diagnostic problems occur in moderate to mild VWD with levels of VWF:RCo 30 U/dL, a Figure 4. Pictorial representation of the 3 different degrees of VWD definite diagnosis of VWD is often difficult to make in patients severity according to levels of VWF and FVIII activities: severe, with very mild VWD forms and VWF:RCo levels 30 U/dL. In the upper part of the pyramid, “severe fact, it is well known that the physiological changes of VWF VWD” cases (VWD3, VWD2A, and VWD1) are included with levels of levels and the variability of the VWF:RCo assays can obscure VWF:RCo 10 U/dL and/or FVIII:C 20 U/dL; the “moderate VWD” mild defects of VWF. In the very mild VWD, the limit between cases (VWD2B, VWD2M, VWD2N, and VWD1) with levels of “disease” and “reduced levels of VWF in a normal individual” VWF:RCo 10-30 U/dL and/or FVIII:C 20-40 U/dL; and the “mild VWF” can be difficult in the absence of bleeding history in other (VWF:RCo 30-50 U/dL and/or FVIII:C 40-60 U/dL) are described in the members of the family, as described previously. The use ristocetin have been developed and introduced into general use with of the analytic approach suggesting that all the 3 major criteria promising results. However, large deletions should be according to different BS, VWF:RCo, and FVIII:C levels (Figure sought because they can be associated with the appearance of allo- 5). BS 10 was associated with the highest incidence of both antibodies against VWF. In VWD1, the probability of finding muta- mucosal (20. It is still not clear whether most mild VWD1 patients years; 95% confidence interval, 6. The clinical diagnosis and classifica- VWD3 is always classified as severe by definition because VWF tion of VWD can be difficult because of the widely variable levels are undetectable in both plasma and platelets with phenotype. The likelihood of diagnosing VWD correctly improves Figure 5. Incidence rate is shown per 100 patient-years as follows: any type (dashed line), mucosal (dash-dotted line), and nonmucosal (solid line) according to BS (left), VWF:RCo (middle), and FVIII (right). More detailed information is provided in Federici et al. Molecular diagnosis can be useful to confirm Willebrand disease: a guideline from the UK Haemophilia Centre specific VWF defects in VWD families. It is still not clear whether Doctors’ Organization. Pasi KJ, Collins PW, Keeling DM, et al The diagnosis of von Despite its complex and heterogeneous nature, VWD can now be Willebrand disease: a guideline from the UK Haemophilia Centre Doctors’ Organization. Von Willebrand disease correct diagnosis and classification of VWD provides the best (VWD): evidence-based diagnosis and management guidelines, the therapeutic approach to VWD patients. National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI) Expert Panel report (USA). Sadler JE, Rodeghiero F, ISTH SSC Subcommittee on von Willebrand Data on the diagnosis and management of VWD are reported from Factor. Provisional criteria for the diagnosis of VWD type 1. J Thromb the Italian retrospective (RENAWI1) and prospective (RENAWI-2) Haemost. Von Willebrand disease type 1: a diagnosis 1 in search of the Health. The author thanks all of the members of the Italian disease. J Thromb Association of Hemophilia Centers who participated in RENAWI-1 Haemost. Usefulness of patient interview Ghilardini, who prepared the figures reported in this manuscript. The discriminant power of Disclosures bleeding history for the diagnosis of type 1 von Willebrand disease: an Conflict-of-interest disclosure: The author is on the board of international multicenter study. Hemorrhagic symptoms and bleeding risk in obligatory carriers of type 3 von Willebrand sulted for Octapharma, LFB, Instrumentation Laboratories, Grifols, disease: an international, multicenter study. Quantitative analysis of CSL-Behring; and has been affiliated with the speakers’ bureau for bleeding symptoms in type 1 von Willebrand disease: results from a Octapharma, LFB, Instrumentation Laboratories, Grifols, Baxter, multicenter European study (MCMDM-1 VWD). Phenotype and genotype Correspondence of a cohort of families historically diagnosed with type 1 von Wille- Augusto B.

South Africa buy 100mg lady era free shipping menopause yahoo articles from yesterday, Ethiopia (one machine for a population of >60 million) 100 mg lady era menopause fatigue, Madagascar, Nigeria, Tanzania, Uganda, Sudan, Kenya, Ghana, Senegal, Zimbabwe and Cameroon, they are located in tertiary institu- tions or in the private sector and are often non- Figure 12 Five-year survival of women treated at functional or poorly maintained. Groote Schuur Hospital, 1984–2006 by stage 333 GYNECOLOGY FOR LESS-RESOURCED LOCATIONS including diversion surgery for women with urin- the establishment of control programs which you ary and rectal fistulae. However, there are very few can download at: http://www. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS However, there are possible synergies with national The author has received honoraria for appearing in HIV care and treatment programs as they empha- various educational and speaker roles for both size the continuum of care and include home-based GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) and Merck/MSD. It is stated that HBC author is the principal investigator for a randomized is not only for people living with HIV/AIDS trial of the safety and efficacy of the bivalent HPV (PLWHA) but with all chronic diseases. Including vaccine in HIV-positive women sponsored by HBC for cancer patients into those programs would GSK. The author acknowledges Dr Leon Van Wijk make a better use of resources and would take away for providing data on cervical cancer treated at the the stigmatizing effect of being a client of such a author’s institution. Cervical cancer is a preventable disease yet remains the commonest cause of cancer death among REFERENCES women in poor countries. Recent research into alternative approaches for the secondary preven- 1. Worldwide particularly ‘screen and treat’ programs that have burden of cervical cancer in 2008. Ann Oncol 2011;22: been tested in randomized trials in South Africa and 2675–86 India and shown that HPV-based screening coupled 3. Geneva: WHO, 2010 with immediate treatment using cryotherapy 4. Burden and trends of significantly reduces both cervical cancer precursors type-specific human papillomavirus infections and re- and cervical cancer. In addition to new approaches lated diseases in the Asia Pacific region. Vaccine 2008;26 to secondary prevention of cervical cancer, the re- (Suppl. Human papillomavirus infection and cervical cancer prevention against HPV infection has major implications for in India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Nepal. Vaccine future prevention: the bivalent vaccine targets HPV 2008;26 (Suppl. A screening programme for gets types 6 and 11 (responsible for genital warts) cervical cancer that worked. Human research is towards molecular detection of cervical papillomavirus is a necessary cause of invasive cervical cancer precursors which should overcome many of cancer worldwide. J Pathol 1999;189:12–19 the deficiencies associated with cervical cytology- 8. Human (NCCPs) is a critical next step for cancer control in papillomavirus types in invasive cervical cancer world- developing countries. Br J Cancer 2003;88:63–73 countries must adopt policies at national level. Human NCCPs have four pillars: prevention, early detec- papillomavirus genotype attribution in invasive cervical tion through diagnosis, treatment and palliation. Lancet Oncol 2010;11:1048–56 Political will is an important element in putting dis- 11. Precancerous eases such as cervical cancer on the health agenda. Blaustein’s WHO has established a cancer control program Pathology of the Female Genital Tract. NY: Springer- which has published some interesting materials on Verlag, 2002 334 Cervical Cancer Prevention and Treatment 12. N Engl J Med 2007;356: absolute risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 1928–43 or worse following human papillomavirus infec- 29. J Natl Cancer Inst 2010;102: bivalent L1 virus-like particle vaccine in prevention of 1478–88 infection with human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 in 13. Cervical human young women: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet papillomavirus prevalence in 5 continents: meta-analysis 2004;364:1757–65 of 1 million women with normal cytological findings. Sustained J Infect Dis 2010;202:1789–99 efficacy up to 4. Annual Review particle vaccine against human papillomavirus types 16 of Development Effectiveness: Achieving Sustainable and 18: follow-up from a randomised control trial. Washington, DC: World Bank, 2009 Lancet 2006;367:1247–55 15. Sankaranarayanan R, Swaminathan R, Brenner H, et al. Chapter 13: Current findings Cancer survival in Africa, Asia, and Central America: a from prophylactic HPV vaccine trials. Prophylactic quad- countries: using health data and health services research rivalent human papillomavirus (types 6, 11, 16, and 18) to measure and improve access, quality and efficiency. L1 virus-like particle vaccine in young women: a ran- BMC Int Health Hum Rights 2010;10:24 domised double-blind placebo-controlled multicentre 17. Working Together for Health: the World Health phase II efficacy trial. Estimates economic outcomes of HPV 16,18 vaccination in 72 of health care professional shortages in sub-Saharan GAVI-eligible countries. MMWR Recomm Rep 1992; news/press-releases/2011 41:1–19 35. Incidence cal assessment of screening methods for cervical neo- of cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions in HIV- plasia. Incidence of visual inspection with acetic acid for cervical cancer cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions associated with screening. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2011;113:14–24 HIV serostatus, CD4 cell counts, and human papilloma- 37. JAMA 2005;293:1471–6 virus-based cervical cancer prevention: long-term 22. J Natl Cancer Inst vaginal human papillomavirus infection in human 2010;102:1557–67 immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV)-positive and high-risk 38. J Natl Cancer Inst 1999;91: screening for cervical cancer in rural India. Comprehensive cervical cancer control: a guide papillomavirus infection and cervical cytology in HIV- to essential practice. Available infected and HIV-uninfected Rwandan women. Revised FIGO stag- papillomavirus infection and cervical disease in human ing for carcinoma of the cervix.

S. Giacomo. Western New England College.

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