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Based on what you learned in this course 200mg doxycycline free shipping antibiotics for uti in hospital, what proactive steps can you take to deal with this fear (i buy doxycycline 100mg with visa infection knee pain. January 2007 4-35 International Association Infectious Diseases of Fire Fighters Unit 4 Post-Exposure Course Closing Anyquestions? August 2007 Student Manual 5- International Association Infectious Diseases of Fire Fighers Unit 5 Avian & Pandemic Infuenza Page left blank intentionally. August 2007 Student Manual 5-5 International Association Infectious Diseases of Fire Fighers Unit 5 Avian & Pandemic Infuenza Page left blank intentionally. Epidemic An epidemic is an illness that is contained in a specifc geographic area. A fu pandemic happens when a new virus emerges for which people have little or no immunity and for which there is no vaccine. The disease spreads easily from person to person, sweeping across a country and around the world. It is estimated that approximately 20 to 0 percent of the worlds population became ill and that over 50 million people died, with 500,000 deaths in the U. During the Spanish fu, healthy people, as well as those who were frail, fell ill and died. Many health experts believe the next outbreak of a pandemic fu isnt a question of if, but when. Use the space below to write the reasons avian fu has the potential to become a pandemic. The new strand of avian fu is one of the few avian infuenza viruses to have crossed the species barrier to infect humans, and is the most deadly of those that have crossed the barrier. In the recent outbreaks in Asia, Europe, and Africa, more than half of those infected with avian fu have died. Those who have contracted the virus have handled birds or surfaces contaminated with secretions or excretions from infected birds. August 2007 Student Manual 5- 5 International Association Infectious Diseases of Fire Fighers Unit 5 Avian & Pandemic Infuenza Page left blank intentionally. What would happen to other areas in the nation if a pandemic outbreak were to happen? August 2007 Student Manual 5- 7 International Association Infectious Diseases of Fire Fighers Unit 5 Avian & Pandemic Infuenza Page left blank intentionally. Inter-Agency Cooperation: Establish relationships with community public health department and other emergency management groups. Defne functional roles and responsibilities of internal and external agencies, organizations, departments and individuals and establish lines of authority. Communications Plan: Establish systems and procedures (how, how often, when, what and to whom the information will be disseminated) and articulate resource requirements. Set up authorities, triggers, and procedures for activating and terminating response plan. Develop and plan for scenarios likely to result in an increase or decrease in demand for your services during a pandemic (e. Ensure fre department has a written infection control policy statement defning the departments mission in limiting the exposure of members to infectious diseases during the performance of their assigned duties and while in the fre station living environment. Ensure fre department has an experienced individual within the department designated as the infection control offcer. Ensure fre department implements and enforces hand and skin washing practices and decontamination procedures. Establish ft-testing and skill training on all respirator types used to prevent exposures. August 2007 Student Manual 5-2 International Association Infectious Diseases of Fire Fighers Unit 5 Avian & Pandemic Infuenza Page left blank intentionally. Impact on Staff Determine impact on staff absenteeism due to illness or attending to ill family member or afraid to come into work and develop Contingency Plan for such an event. Evaluate staff access to, and availability of, healthcare services during a pandemic. Establish policies for restricting travel and preventing infuenza spread at the worksite. Disseminate information frequently to all staff to prevent misinformation or fears based on rumors. Establish a dedicated staff member who is responsible for disseminating information. Staff must also be able to easily provide feedback to designated staff member on what they are facing, including those issues experienced in the feld. The safety/infection control and prevention offcers will be the frst line of defense for policies your department makes for the pandemic. Here are some examples of what the safety/infection control and prevention offcers will ensure. August 2007 Student Manual 5-25 International Association Infectious Diseases of Fire Fighers Unit 5 Avian & Pandemic Infuenza Page left blank intentionally. Infuenza is spread from person to person by contact with respiratory secretions from an infected person. When an infected person coughs or sneezes, large droplets carrying the virus land on the surfaces of the upper respiratory tracts of persons who are within three feet of the infected person. The virus can also spread by direct or indirect contact with respiratory secretions touching contaminated surfaces and then touching the eyes, nose, or mouth. Respiratory Protection During the class discussion, use the space below to take notes on respiratory protection. Surgical mask N-95 P-100 August 2007 Student Manual 5-27 International Association Infectious Diseases of Fire Fighers Unit 5 Avian & Pandemic Infuenza Page left blank intentionally. If you taste or smell the agent, you will test another disposable mask size (or type). Immediately after activities involving contact with a patients body fuids, gloves should be removed and discarded and hands should be cleaned. Do not rub eyes after using eyewear, or after handling patients or equipment until you have thoroughly washed your hands. You are dispatched as part of Ladder Company to West Point Drive where a -year-old male complains of shortness of breath. As you talk to him, he reveals that he works as a consultant to a company that produces down comforters and has spent a great deal of time in factories that house ducks. If the turnout gear is visibly contaminated by bodily fuid, it should be placed in a biohazard bag at the scene and washed, following prescribed laundry procedures. The vaccine could be used in the event the current H5N avian virus were to develop the capability to effciently spread from human to human, resulting in the rapid spread of the disease across the globe. Should such an infuenza pandemic emerge, the vaccine may provide early limited protection in the months before a vaccine tailored to the pandemic strain of the virus could be developed and produced. The vaccine was obtained from a human strain and is intended for immunizing people 18 through 64 years of age who could be at increased risk of exposure to the H5N1 infuenza virus contained in the vaccine.

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The extract obtained from the fruits of Randia tinctoria possesses insecticidal and insect repellant properties trusted doxycycline 200 mg antibiotics lactose intolerance. Dye plants The dyes alizarin and purpurin are obtained from the roots of Rubia tinctoria (madder) discount 100mg doxycycline overnight delivery virus 56. A red dye is extracted from the root and barks of Oldenlandia umbellata (Dye root). Timber plants Timber of commercial value is obtained from Adina cordifolia (Manjakkadambu) and Morinda tinctoria (Nuna tree). Ornamental plants Gardenia jasminoides (cape jasmine), Ixora coccinea (Iddlipoo) and Mussaenda frondosa (Vellai madandhai) are grown in gardens. Launaea pinnatifida), exstipulate showing reticulate venation, hairy (Tridax procumbens) and spinous (eg. Inflorescence This family is characterized by the presence of head or capitulum type of inflorescence. The number of florets in a head is variable from a few to several hundreds, but in Echinops, the head is reduced to a single flower. In homogamous heads, all the florets are tubular as in Vernonia arborea and Ageratum mexicanum. The disc florets are generally complete, bisexual and actinomorphic, whereas the ray florets are incomplete, pistillate or neutral and zygomorphic. Calyx In many species calyx is reduced to numerous hairy appendages called pappus, arranged on top of the ovary. Corolla Petals 5, gamopetalous showing valvate aestivation, regular and tubular in disc florets and irregular and ligulate or bilabiate in ray florets. Fruit Cypsela, single seeded, dry indehiscent fruit developing from an inferior ovary. Leaf Simple, opposite, exstipulate and margins dentate showing reticulate venation. Inflorescence A terminal heterogamous head and receptacle of the head is convex and surrounded by green involucre. The tubular florets occupy the centre and the ligulate florets are found at the margins. Calyx Reduced into numerous hairy outgrowths called pappus arranged on top of ovary and persistent. Calyx Reduced into numerous hairy outgrowths called pappus arranged on top of the ovary and persistent. Oil plants Oil extracted from the seeds of Helianthus annuus (sunflower) is edible and used as a cooking medium. Oil extracted from the seeds of Carthamus tinctorius (safflower) is edible and also used in the manufacture of soap. It contains less amount of cholesterol and therefore it is recommended for heart patients. Medicinal plants The entire plant, Eclipta prostrata (Karisalankanni) is used in the preparation of bathing oil and also in the treatment of jaundice, spleen and liver disorders. The drug santonin obtained from the heads of Artemesia maritima is used for expelling intestinal round worms. Dye plants A natural red dye obtained from Carthamus tinctorius is used for dyeing silks. A yellow dye obtained from the flowers of Tagetus erecta is used for dyeing cotton. Pesticides A dried powder called Pyrethrum obtained from the flower heads of Chrysanthemum cinerarifolium and C. Beverage Powder obtained from the seeds of Cichorium intybus (chicory/ kasini keerai) is mixed with coffee powder. Ornamental plants Helianthus annuus (sunflower), Tagetus petula (French marigold), Calendula officinalis (pot marigold) and Zinnia elegans are grown in gardens for their beautiful flowers. Datura stramonium) or extra axillary scorpioid cyme called rhipidium (fan shaped cyme) as in S. Androecium Stamens 5, epipetalous, alternate with the petals, usually not equal in length and filaments are inserted in the middle or basal region of corolla tube and basifixed. Anthers dithecous, introrse, usually basifixed or dorsifixed, dehiscing longitudinally or through apical pores (eg. In Schizanthus pinnatus, two stamens are fertile and three stamens are reduced to staminodes. In Lycopersicon esculentum, the fruit is a berry and in species of Datura and Petunia, the fruit is a capsule. Androecium Stamens 5, free from one another epipetalous, alternate the petals and are inserted in the middle of the corolla tube. Anthers are basifixed, dithecous with long filament, introrse and longitudinally dehiscent. Datura metal 45 Fruit Spinescent capsule opening by four apical valves with persistent calyx. Food plants Tubers of Solanum tuberosum (potato) are used as common vegetable throughout the world. Leaves and flowers of Datura stramonium are the sources of drug stramonium used to treat asthma and whooping cough. Leaves, flowers, berries of Solanum trilobatum (thoodhuvalai) are used to treat cough. Roots and leaves of Withania somnifera (Amukkara) are used to treat nervous disorder and are diuretic apart from useful tonic. Tobacco Leaves of Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) contain alkaloids nicotine, nornicotine and anabasine. Nicotine is considered to be the principal alkaloid in commercial tobaccos such as cigarette, bidi, pipes and hukkah as well as chewing and snuffing. In which of the following plants the midrib and veins are found with yellowish spines a. It is world wide in distribution, but particularly well represented in Africa and South America. It is a collection of unisexual flowers arranged in cymose manner on a condensed axis and enclosed within a cup-shaped involucre. Each cyathium has a single central female flower surrounded by two to many male flowers. In Ricinus communis, it is a panicle where female and male flowers are arranged in racemose manner. In Croton sparsiflorus (Eli amanakku), the inflorescence is simple raceme, whereas in Acalypha indica (Kuppaimeni), it is catkin.

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Suppression of Met activation in human co lon cancer cells treated with ()-epigallocatechin-3-gallate: Minor role of hydrogen peroxide order generic doxycycline pills virus yardville. Effect of somatostatin analog on high-fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome: Involvement of reactive oxygen species buy doxycycline without prescription antibiotics for acne bad. The effects of fish oil, olive oil, oleic acid and linoleic acid on colorectal neoplastic processes. Apparent partial re mission of breast cancer in High Risk patients supplemented with nutritional anti 412 Oxidative Stress and Chronic Degenerative Diseases - A Role for Antioxidants oxidants, essential fatty acids and Coenzyme Q. Vitamin e reduces superficial bladder cancer recur rence: a randomized controlled trial. Caractersticas estructurales y funcionales de los transporta dores de glutamato: su relacin con la epilepsia y el estrs oxidativo. Cachrys pungens Jan inhibits human melanoma cell proliferation through photo-induced cytotoxic activity. The effects of plant flavonoids on mammalian cells: Implications for inflammation, heart disease, and cancer. Antioxidant and anticarci nogenic effects of methanolic extract and volatile oil of fennel seeds (Foeniculum vulgare). Combinations of re sveratrol, cisplatin and oxaliplatin applied to human ovarian cancer cells. The antioxidant/anticancer potential of phenolic compounds isolated from olive oil. Memantine Reduces Oxidative Damage And Enhances Long-Term Recogni tion Memory In Aged Rats. High doses of multiple antioxidant vitamins: essential ingredients in improving the efficacy of standard cancer therapy. Scientific rationale for using high-dose multiple micronutrients as an adjunct to standard and experimental 414 Oxidative Stress and Chronic Degenerative Diseases - A Role for Antioxidants cancer therapies. The role of peroxiredoxin V in (-)-epigallocatechin 3- gallate-induced multiple myeloma cell death. The green tea compound, ()-epigallocatechin-3-gallate downregulates N-cadherin and suppresses migration of bladder carcinoma cells. Chrysin reduces proliferation and induces apoptosis in the human prostate cancer cell line pc-3. Cytoprotective ac tivity against peroxide-induced oxidative damage and cytotoxicity of flavonoids in C6 rat glioma cells. Antioxidant -tocopherol checks lymphoma pro motion via regulation of expression of protein kinase C- and c-Myc genes and gly colytic metabolism. In vitro antiproliferative and antioxidant activities and total phenolic contents of the extracts of Melastoma malabathricum leaves. Evaluation of oxidative stress and inflammation in obese adults with metabol ic syndrome. In vitro antitumor activity and structure characterization of ethanol extracts from wild and 416 Oxidative Stress and Chronic Degenerative Diseases - A Role for Antioxidants cultivated Chaga medicinal mushroom, Inonotus obliquus (Pers. Antioxidants in patients receiving total parenteral nutri tion after gastrointestinal cancer surgery. Inhibitory effect of epigallocatechin-3-gallate on growth and invasion in human biliary tract car cinoma cells. Suppression of human pancreatic carcinoma cell growth and invasion by epigallocatechin-3-gallate. Chemopreventive effects of sily marin against 1,2-dimethylhydrazine plus dextran sodium sulfate-induced inflammation-associated carcinogenicity and genotoxicity in the colon of gpt delta rats. A novel anti oxidant flavonoid (IdB 1031) affecting molecular mechanisms of cellular activation. Oxidative Stress and Neurodegenerative Diseases: A Review of Upstream and Downstream Antioxidant Therapeutic Options. Integrated assessment by multiple gene ex pression analysis of quercetin bioactivity on anticancer-related mechanisms in colon cancer cells in vitro. Purification, biochemical characterization, and bioactive properties of a lectin purified from the seeds of white tepary bean (phaseolus acutifolius variety latifolius). Detection of cytotoxic activity of lectin on human colon adenocarcinoma (Sw480) and epithelial cervical carcinoma (C33-A). The relative contributions of vitamin E, urate, ascorbate and proteins to the total per oxyl radical-trapping antioxidant activity of human blood plasma. Charactetization of anti cancer, antimicrobial, antioxidant properties and chemical composition of Peperomia pellucid. Baicalein mediates inhibition of migration and invasiveness of skin carcinoma through Ezrin in A431 cells. Suppression of esophageal cancer cell growth using curcumin, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate and lovastatin. Introduction The possibility has arisen within the last three decades that major diseases that directly af fect humankind worldwide may be preventable by the simple improving the dietary intake of those nutrient substances that have become called antioxidant nutrients. There is no doubt that successful prevention is the key to controlling morbidity and mortali ty from chronic diseases affecting humankind. Prevention provides: the methods to avoid occurrence of disease and most population-based health promotion efforts are of this type; methods to diagnose and treat extant disease in early stages before it causes significant mor bidity; methods to reduce negative impact of extant disease by restoring function and reduc ing disease-related complications; and finally, the methods to mitigate or avoid results of unnecessary or excessive interventions in the health system. The quality and quantity of diet with respect to the intake of fresh food (fruits, seeds and vegetables) may improve our health and consequently decrease the risk of any disease. However, it is worthy to mention that these compounds are involved in other functions a part from being antioxidant nutrients. Is the 34 element and is located between sulfur and tellurith um in Group 16 in the periodic table. It is a nonmetallic element and its properties are inter mediate between adjacent sulfur and tellurium. It was originally discovered by a German chemist Martin Heinric Klaproth, but misidentified as tellurium. Later, in 1818 a Swedish chemist Jons Jacob Berzelius discovered selenium and was named after the Greek goddess of the moon, Selene [1] and its name was associated with tellurium, a name for earth. It ranks seventieth in abundance among the elements and is distributed in the Earths crust at concentrations averaging 0. Selenium has six major stable isotopes have been reported and the most abundant in nature are 80Se (49. In general, selenium is present in the environment in elemental form or in the form of sele nide (Se ), selenate (SeO2- 2-), or selenite (SeO 2-). The identity and amounts of the various oxi 4 3 dation-state species in soils depends enormously on the redox-potential conditions. The lower oxidation states predominate in anaerobic conditions, acidic soils, and the higher oxi dation states are favored in alkaline and aerobic conditions. Both selenites and selenates are taken up by plants and converted to protein-bound selenocysteine and selenomethionine, soluble inorganic forms, several free amino acids, and volatile organoselenium compounds.

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