By Q. Grompel. Minot State University. 2019.
Tremorous mouth movements in rats administered chronic neuroleptics generic kamagra effervescent 100 mg overnight delivery thyroid erectile dysfunction treatment. Psychopharmacology developed into a therapeutic approach discount 100 mg kamagra effervescent with mastercard erectile dysfunction australian doctor. Treatments for TD will always be needed, even though 19. The dose-response the incidence of new cases may fall significantly with time. Tiagabine inhibits haloperidol-induced oral dyskinesias in rats. J Neural Transm likely to be found in the GABAergic or the glutamatergic Gen Sect 1994;95:63–69. Chronic olanzapine or ser- tindole treatment results in reduced oral chewing movements in rats compared to haloperidol. Dopaminergic hypersensitivity and cholinergic hypofunction in the pathophysiology of tardive 1. Persistent vacuous chewing in rats following neuro- proposed circuit mechanism. Intermittent neuroleptic treat- dyskinesia among long-term outpatients maintained with neu- ment induces long-lasting abnormal mouthing in the rat. Eur roleptic medications: results of the Yale Tardive Dyskinesia J Pharmacol 1989;164:393–396. Ultrastructural corre- zation block as a model for the therapeutic actions of antipsy- lates of haloperidol-induced oral dyskinesias in rat striatum. Graybiel AM: Neurotransmitters and neuromodulators in the 48. Scopolamine fails to dimin- chotic drug administration. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1986;25: ish chronic haloperidol-induced purposeless chewing in rats. Clonazepam in treatment of tardive oral dyskinesia lowing brain lesions and neuroleptic drug administration. Reductions of nigral glutamic acid in drug-naive and chronic haloperidol-treated rats. Pharmacol decarboxylase in rats withneuroleptic-induced oral dyskinesia. Association with persis- antipsychotic drugs and dopamine: direct binding assays. Proc tent neuroleptic- induced dyskinesia of regional changes in brain Natl Acad Sci USA 1975;72:4376–4380. Basal ganglia GABAA and dopa- schizophrenia relates to clinical features. Arch Gen Psychiatry mine D1 binding site correlates of haloperidol-induced oral 1995;52:657–667. The treatment of tardive dyskinesia and tardive tion of haloperidol-induced oral dyskinesias in the rat supports dystonia. Vitamin E for neuroleptic-induced ies with and without haloperidol. In search of treatment for tardive dyskinesia: review 60. Risk of tardive dyski- Database Syst Rev 2000;CD000203. Low incidence of tardive dyskinesia: a study in three rat strains. Psychopharmacol- persistent tardive dyskinesia in elderly patients with dementia ogy (Berl) 1990;102:474-478. Drug-induced oral dyskine- treatment improves tardive dyskinesia [Letter]. Lancet 1983;2: sias in rats after traditional and new neuroleptics. The incidence of tardive dyskinesia: observations from human and animal model tardive dyskinesia: the Hillside Prospective Study. Integrating inci- ment of tardive dyskinesia: a practical GABAmimetic strategy. Psychopharmacol Bull Am J Psychiatry 1990;147:445–451. Diagnosis and drug treatment of psychiatric aminobutyric acid abnormality in tardive dyskinesia: reduction disorders. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1987;44: dyskinesia following neuroleptic withdrawal. Effect of sodium valproate trolled, long-term study of the comparative incidence of treat- on tardive dyskinesia. Identifying risk factors for tardive dyskinesia in a schizophrenic patient treated with the atypical Chapter 126: Tardive Dyskinesia 1841 antipsychotic substance quetiapine. Animal models of depression and schizo- patients with schizophrenia before and after acute neuroleptic phrenia. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1986;49: psychopharmacology. Spontaneous orofacial movements induced in Psychiatry 1998;155:1521–1528. Tardive dyskinesia in nomenology, pathophysiology and putative relationship to tar- elderly psychiatric patients: a 5-year study. A controlled, cial dyskinesia and dopaminergic function in rats after 6 months dose-response study of sertindole and haloperidol in schizophre- of neuroleptic treatment. BERTRAM Epilepsy is a chronic condition characterized by sponta- ment of uncontrolled seizures. Removal of the hippocampus neously recurring seizures. Although often viewed and dis- (together with adjacent structures) often successfully con- cussed as a single clinical entity, epilepsy is a symptom of trols seizures in 'intractable' patients whose seizures do not several disorders that affect the brain. For these reasons, a general con- is quite extensive and includes tumors, congenital malfor- sensus has developed that the hippocampus is the key to mations, genetic alterations in receptors or channels, and understanding and treating limbic epilepsy, and much of acquired structural abnormalities such as those following the research directed at MTLE has focused on this area of trauma or infection. However, there is increasing evidence that other causes, such as rolandic epilepsy, are self-limited and benign, structures of the limbic system, such as the amygdala, parts whereas others are progressive (1). The seizures in some of the neocortex, and the entorhinal cortex, which is a phy- forms of epilepsy may arise from the entire brain at one logenetically older part of the cortex that controls the infor- time, whereas in other forms they start in a particular region mation flow into and from the hippocampus (3), also play or focus. Any region of the brain can serve as a seizure focus, important roles in the initiation and propagation of seizures but seizure onset is commonly observed in the temporal in MTLE. Although there are multiple causes for epilepsy origi- Support for the involvement of nonhippocampal limbic nating in the temporal lobe, the most common form is the sites in MTLE comes from a variety of sources. As reviewed mesial temporal lobe epilepsy syndrome (MTLE), sometimes in this chapter, extrahippocampal areas frequently show also termed limbic epilepsy because of the apparent involve- pathologic structural changes on histologic examination. The common clinical pattern during the seizure epi- of diffuse limbic onset without a regional predilection (4, sode includes staring and lack of responsiveness, frequently 5).
Controlled efficacy study of fluoxetine in dysthymia purchase kamagra effervescent paypal erectile dysfunction protocol discount. Therapeutic efficacy of diagnoses in children of women with unipolar and bipolar affec- specific serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in dysthymia generic kamagra effervescent 100mg with visa erectile dysfunction - 5 natural remedies. A placebo-controlled, efficacy of fluoxetine in unipolar depression. Br J Psychiatry 1988; randomized clinical trial comparing sertraline and imipramine 153(suppl 3):69–76. Treatment of chronic Int Clin Psychopharmacol 1993;8:189–195. Sertraline in the prevention of depres- response rates and high rates of undertreatment in the commu- sion. Psychopharmacological of 20 mg citalopram, 40 mg citalopram and placebo in the pre- treatment response of patients with a DSM-III diagnosis of dys- vention of relapse of major depression. Mirtazapine versus RO-11-1163 (moclobemide) and placebo in the treatment of amitriptyline in the long-term treatment of depression: a double- depression. International Collaborative Study substitution study of nefazodone in the prevention of relapse Group. Amisulpride versus fluoxetine in patients with dys- ders. WEISSMAN Epidemiology is the study of the distribution of diseases MAJOR DEPRESSION and disorders in human populations and the variation in Prevalence these distributions in different population subgroups. An observation that a disease is higher in one group or another Data on prevalence of unipolar MD based on epidemiologic helps to identify risk factors or correlates of these high rates community surveys using the same diagnostic assessment, whose alteration will interrupt the causal sequence that pro- the Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS), are now available duces the disorder. Epidemiologic methods have been from different parts of the world. These population-based grouped into descriptive studies, which provide basic esti- epidemiologic studies were conducted in the 1980s, and a mates of rates and their variation or increased risk in a popu- cross-national collaboration was formed to analyze the data lation; analytic studies, which explore the variations in rates together in a standardized way. Ten countries across the among different groups and identify risk factors; and experi- world, including North America, Europe, Asia, and New mental studies, which test an association between a risk Zealand, participated. These data provide the first informa- factor and a disorder and seek to control or reduce the tion on cross-national rates for risk factors using the same occurrence by controlling the risk factor. The lifetime prevalence rates of MD range from Epidemiologic methods used in psychiatry are identical 1. The results showed considerable variation in rates, but con- to those used in other branches of medicine. In psychiatry sistency in sex differences and age of onset. In the National Comorbidity analytic (family and high-risk offspring) studies. The former Survey (NCS) conducted a decade later in the United States, is useful as a first step because the samples include subjects a substantially higher lifetime prevalence of MD was re- regardless of treatment and thus are unbiased. All prevalence rates have been published are useful as they include control groups and can be used individually, but for the purpose of comparison between to calculate relative risks. Whether the differences are real (reflecting a substantial change in the prevalence rate over the decade) or artifactual (due to differences in methodology) has prompted careful examination. Hirschfeld: Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral difference is due to methodology (e. Weissman: College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia assessment, sample age, and size), and not to a true increase University, New York, New York. CROSS-NATIONAL LIFETIME PREVALENCE OF MAJOR DEPRESSIONa Lifetime Rate/100 Mean Age Country Overall Females Males F/M Ratio at Onset United States 5. All studies used the DIS with the exception of the NCS, which used the CIDI. Gender MD in female relatives of patients with MD by age 30 was less than 10% in individuals born before 1929. This rate Despite the variation in rates, the most consistent finding doubled in cohorts born between 1930 and 1949, and in the cross-national studies and the two U. The reasons The rate in males also increased in younger cohorts, but not for this disparity are not clear, but the disparity is also found nearly as dramatically as in women (Figs. Interestingly, prior to puberty there are An analysis of the ECA data by Wickramaratne and col- no sex differences in rates of depression. However, following leagues (5) showed an increase in the rate of MD in the puberty there is a dramatic shift in the prevalence rates, cohort born between 1935 and 1945. The rates for females with a twofold increase in the prevalence of depression stabilized after this increase. However, rates for males con- among women compared to men. A higher risk of depres- tinued to rise in the cohort born between 1945 and 1954, sion in women is probably accounted for primarily by the and then decreased in the most recent cohort of the study, higher risk of first onset in women. A series of analyses of the NCS data shows that there is little difference in the probability of acute recurrence in women and in men with a history of depression (3). Many theories, biological, psy- chosocial, and artifactual, attempt to explain this dramatic increase in the prevalence of depression among women, but none is fully satisfactory. Age Of Onset And Secular Changes The age of first onset of MD is fairly consistent across stud- ies (Table 70. Of the ten major population-based epide- miologic studies reported by Weissman et al. Although there is consis- tency across studies regarding the age of onset, there is some evidence that the age of onset of depression has decreased FIGURE 70. Cumulative probability of diagnosable major de- over the last half century (4). In 1985, using the data from pressive disorder in male relatives by birth cohort. Birth-cohort trends in rates the NIMH Collaborative Program on the Psychobiology of of major depressive disorder among relatives of patients with Depression, the cumulative probability of a first episode of affective disorder. Marital Status Marital status has been found to be highly associated with onset and prevalence of depression, but not with treatment outcome. In the ECA and the NCS, married and never- married persons were found to have lower rates of depres- sion than those divorced, separated, and widowed. For ex- ample, in the ECA study, divorced and separated individuals had over a twofold increase compared to those married and never married (Table 70. Two countries with the lowest rate of MD in the ECA study—Korea and Taiwan—also FIGURE 70. Cumulative probability of diagnosable major de- pressive disorder in female relatives by birth cohort.
Enhanced dynorphin peptides buy generic kamagra effervescent 100mg on line erectile dysfunction and icd 9, in possibly also the amygdala order kamagra effervescent american express erectile dysfunction treatment photos, as contrasted to indirect effects turn, acting at -opioid receptors, may reduce dopaminergic on the ventral tegmental area. The effects on dopamine tone in many brain regions, including those involved in in each of these different locations and also the different reward and also locomotor activity, and they may also atten- mechanisms involved have not yet been fully elucidated uate opioid withdrawal in dependent animals or humans using a model of chronic, high-dose, intermittent but evenly (6,8,9–11,16). Again, these events must be considered to spaced opiate administration, mimicking the human pattern be a direct result of neuroplasticity and are counterregula- of heroin or morphine abuse and addiction, and also after tory, the attempt to attenuate, modulate, or even brake the withdrawal, as well as during reexposure after such opiate events caused by the rapid changes in dopaminergic tone administration. During chronic binge pattern cocaine ad- brought about especially by stimulants such as cocaine, but ministration, a pattern mimicking the human condition, also to a lesser extent also by opiates. Noble edly primarily the result of the effects of chronic opioid and Cox clearly defined a role of the dopaminergic system in administration. However, because there are also significant opioid-receptor desensitization in these brain regions during changes in dopaminergic tone with enhanced signaling chronic morphine administration (39). This is a rate-limiting enzyme in the biosyn- tion of the dopaminergic neurons, as stated earlier. They also found a reduction in mean D5-type dopaminergic receptors enhance adenylyl cyclase size of the ventral tegmental area dopaminergic neurons and activity, an effect similar to that occurring in the locus ceru- decreased axonal transport to the nucleus accumbens (24, leus after chronic, but not acute, morphine administration, 79). However, there were no changes in numbers of dopa- in most strains of rodents studied, and also in the nucleus minergic neurons and no changes in the size of nondopami- accumbens in some strains of some species. Within ventral tegmental area, infusion activation of the dopaminergic D2 receptors causes a reduc- of brain-derived neurotrophic factor prevented this mor- tion in adenylyl cyclase activity, such as observed during phine-induced reduction in size of dopaminergic neurons acute morphine administration in all brain regions of strains (79). Their group also found that chronic morphine admin- and species of rodents studied, as well as in all cell systems istration resulted in an increase of other components related studied, and an effect that continues to pertain in some to signal transduction, including the extracellular signal reg- specific regions of the brain and other parts of the body ulated kinases (ERKs), which are effectors for brain-derived during chronic opioid administration. Thus, the observa- neurotrophic factor in the ventral tegmental area (24). Crain There have been only limited studies of the time course and Shen hypothesized that, although most -opioid recep- of all these dopaminergic responses during investigator-ad- tors are coupled with inhibitory Gi/oprotein, a small propor- ministered morphine or heroin on an intermittent basis, tion may be coupled at the stimulatory Gs protein, which mimicking the human pattern of heroin abuse, or during can be suppressed with small amounts of opioid antagonists. It would be assumed These findings of enhanced morphine analgesia are, in part, that possibly, as with cocaine, one sees a progressive diminu- very similar to the findings of Bohn, Caron, Lefkowitz, and tion of the responsivity, with a resultant lowering of basal colleagues, in mice with deletion of -arrestin (60). These level and stimulant-induced rise of absolute levels of dopa- researchers also showed that -arrestin is important in sev- mine (78). Numerous human studies suggest this may in- eral distinct functions, including events leading to the inter- deed happen. It has been repeatedly shown in heroin addicts nalization of an agonist bound -opioid receptor, which, that the short acting -opioid agonist heroin will cause a after the phosphorylation of the bound form, binds to - prompt increase in serum prolactin levels, resulting directly arrestin, along with binding by G-protein–receptor kinases from an abrupt lowering of dopamine levels in the tuberoin- (60). This event of -arrestin binding has been described fundibular dopaminergic systems (85). In humans, and to a as potentially part of the process that desensitizes, that is, greater extent than in rodents, prolactin release is essentially leads to G-protein uncoupling of the -opioid receptors, solely under tonic inhibition by dopaminergic tone in the as well as being actually involved in the internalization of tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic system. However, it was endogenous and some exogenous agonist-bound -opioid found that during chronic methadone treatment, there is receptors (44–52,60). The role of internalization in the de- adaptation or tolerance to this phenomenon, an attenua- velopment of tolerance and the independent process of de- tion, but not a complete removal or ablation of this response pendence remain unclear because there are many conflicting caused by dopamine lowering and resulting in elevation of results, including the finding that most exogenous opioid serum prolactin levels (85). Even during long-term metha- ligands, including morphine, that do not induce prompt done maintenance treatment, as reported in 1978, it was internalization of -opioid receptors once bound, clearly found that peak plasma levels of the -opiate agonist metha- lead to the development of both tolerance and physical de- done are related temporally to the peak plasma levels of pendence (44–52). In sharp contrast, methadone and etor- prolactin (85). These findings suggest that the long-acting phine do lead to prompt internalization of -opioid recep- opioid methadone administered orally continues to have tors, just as do all the natural endogenous opioid peptides an impact at least on the tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic such as Met-enkephalin and -endorphin (44–52). Intrigu- system, with a lowering of dopaminergic tone, resulting in ingly, in the mice with deletion at the -arrestin-2 gene, a modest increase of prolactin levels, although not exceeding enhanced morphine analgesia was seen, and further studies upper levels of normal. However, that attenuation occurs revealed that tolerance does not develop to morphine effects, suggests that there may be either a lowering of dopaminergic and yet objective signs reflecting the development of physi- levels and tone in the turberoinfundibular dopaminergic cal dependence are present after chronic morphine adminis- system of that region or, alternatively, an attenuation of tration (60). These studies again dissociated the develop- responsivity of the -opiate-receptor system. It has been ment of tolerance from the development of physical shown that the -opiate-receptor system similarly plays a dependence. The studies of the group of Crain, as well as role in modulating prolactin levels in humans (86). In nor- the studies of the group of Caron and Lefkowitz, suggested mal healthy volunteers, dynorphin A causes a prompt rise that either deletion of -arrestin or suppression, by opioid in serum prolactin levels, resulting again presumably from antagonists in very small doses, of opioid receptor coupled a lowering of dopaminergic tone in the tuberoinfundibular to G , the stimulatory G-protein pathway, will enhance opi-s system (86). This is a , but also a -opioid-receptor effect, oid analgesia and also may attenuate or prevent develop- as documented by use of two different opioid antagonists ment of tolerance. It is not known whether blocking of the with different receptor selectivity (86). In preliminary stud- G coupling alters the development of physical dependence,s ies, the Kreek laboratory showed that there is altered respon- however. In possibly related studies, Jeziorski and White sivity both in former heroin addicts and in former cocaine showed that the NMDA antagonist, MK-801, prevents de- addicts, as well as those with combined heroin opioid and velopment of behavioral sensitization during chronic mor- cocaine dependency (87). Sensitization has been suggested to be ters; this group comprises fast-acting neurotransmitters in- related to drug reward or craving. Possibly in contrast, cluding excitatory amino acids such as glutamate and Churchill, Roques, and Kalivas found that dopamine deple- slower-acting neurotransmitters such as norepinephrine, tion, such as may happen during chronic opiate, as well as epinephrine, and serotonin, as well as dopamine, and a vari- 1498 Neuropsychopharmacology: The Fifth Generation of Progress ety of neuropeptides. Very few studies have been conducted to novelty or to risk and used different strains of rats, as well in models using chronic heroin or morphine administration, as mice. Similarly, more recent studies looked not simply at or self-administration, using long-term, high-dose, regularly the acute effects of drugs of abuse, but also at the subacute spaced intermittent administration or by long-access, high- and chronic effects of drugs of abuse and the impact of dose, self-administration, mimicking the human pattern of withdrawal from such drugs on components of the stress- heroin abuse. Further work will be central to detail the long- responsive axis. Even more recent studies went on to study term effects and, also of special interest, the effects of the levels of gene expression and the impact of exposure to drugs withdrawal and reexposure to mimic relapse. However, of abuse over a defined time course of exposure on gene qualitatively and quantitatively different changes have been expression, first on 'early gene response' and then, more found during chronic morphine or heroin administration recently, on changes of expression of many other specific by different patterns, dose, and routes of administration. The interactions of the dopaminergic system on the HPA Physiologic Systems and Behaviors axis as well as the effects of catecholamines on this axis have Primarily Altered been studied in both animal models and in humans. It is clear that opiates, like cocaine but to a much lesser extent, Stress Responsivity: Possible Implications for cause an elevation in dopaminergic tone, especially in the Opiate Addiction mesolimbic-mesocortical dopaminergic system. However, An atypical responsivity to stress and stressors existing on as discussed earlier, several groups have shown that although a drug-induced basis or possibly a priori, on a genetic or this is a reproducible phenomenon, the mesolimbic-meso- environmental basis, as one component of the 'metabolic cortical dopaminergic system is not essential for heroin or basis' of heroin addiction was a concept that was hypothe- morphine self-administration, and animals that have re- sized by the Kreek group in 1964, and it was therefore ceived lesions abolishing this mesolimbic-mesocortical do- addressed directly in our prospective studies started at that paminergic system readily self-administer opiates such as time and completed in 1972, as well as in other early basic morphine. This finding is in sharp contrast to that which clinical research studies (6,85,88–92). Several laboratories pertains for cocaine self-administration in which lesions of went on to study, in humans, the impact of drugs of abuse the mesolimbic-mesocortical dopaminergic system abolish and specifically heroin, but also morphine, (as used in a cocaine self-administration. Thus, the role of dopamine in single dose or on a chronic basis in the pharmacotherapy the well-established acute morphine activation of the HPA of pain), on one component of stress response, the hypotha- axis in rodents is of interest, but it may be a related, but lamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis (6,93–108). Long-term not central, component of the mechanism underlying self- studies in animal models came later, however, and were administration.
Eating disorder attitudes and psychopathology in Caucasian Australian cheap kamagra effervescent 100mg overnight delivery erectile dysfunction ed natural treatment, Asian Australian and Thai university students buy 100mg kamagra effervescent erectile dysfunction video. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 2006; 40:143-149. Frotocingular dysfunction in bulimia nervosa when confronted with disease-specific stimuli. Altered fimbria-fornix white matter integrity in anorexia nervosa predicts harm avoidance. New insights into symptoms and neurocircuit function of anorexia nervosa. Kendler K, McLean C, Neale M, Kessler R, Heath A, Eaves L. American Journal of Psychiatry 1991; 148:1627- 1637. International Review of Psychiatry 2003; 15:205- 216. Three psychotherapies for anorexia nervosa: a randomized controlled trial. Oxytocin and anorexia nervosa: a review of the emerging literature. White matter integrity is reduced in bulimia nervosa. Self-injurious behaviour in women with eating disorders. Excess mortality, causes of death and prognostic factors in anorexia nervosa. The neurobiology of anorexia nervosa: a systematic review. Aust N Z J Psychiatry 2013 Nov 5 [Epub ahead of print] Pinna F, Sanna L, Carpiniello B. Alexithymia in eating disorders: therapeutic implications. Psychology Research and Behavior Management 2015; 8: 1-15. Anorexia and the holiness of Saint Catherine of Siena. Journal of Criminal Justice and Popular Culture 2001; 8:37-47. Emotional differentiation and parental bonding in patients suffering from eating disorders. Bulimia nervosa: an ominous variant of anorexia nervosa. Sigurth et al, Platelet serotonin transporter and 5–HT(2A) receptor binding in adolescents. Acceptance and commitment therapy for eating disorders and the mindfulness and acceptance workbook for bulimia. Responsivity to food cues in bulimic women and controls. An assessment of eating beliefs in anorexia nervosa. American Journal of Psychiatry 2002; 159: 1284-1293. American Journal of Psychiatry 2009; 166: 1331-1341. Outcome and prognosis in anorexia nervosa and bulimia: some results of previous investigations, compared with a Swedish long-term study. The case for early intervention in anorexia nervosa: theoretical exploration of maintaining factors. Prevalence and long-term course of lifetime eating disorders in an adult Australian twin cohort. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 2006; 40:121-128. Intellectual function in patients with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Wonderlich S, Brewerton T, Jocic S, Dansky B, Abbott D. Relationship of childhood sexual abuse and eating disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 1997; 36:1107-1115. Quantitative evidence for distinct cognitive impairment in anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Journal of Neuropsychology 2009; July 16 [Epub ahead of print] Zhu A, Walsh B. ANTIPSYCHOTIC DRUGS Introductory summary of the dopamine pathways The dopamine pathways are the focus of the drug treatment of psychosis, and are involved in many of the side effects of that treatment. One theory of schizophrenia poses that underactivity in this pathway causes an early event in the development of schizophrenia: difficulties with executive and other cognitive functions. Also, it is possible that underactivity of this pathway may be involved in the negative symptoms of schizophrenia. The side- effect of antipsychotics known as the “secondary” negative symptoms may arise in large part through further disruption of transmission in this pathway. Impulses then pass on to other components of the limbic system and temporal lobe structures (including the auditory cortex). In the theory of schizophrenia mentioned in (1), when cognitive tasks are performed less efficiently, there is a compensatory increased activity in the mesolimbic pathway, and this increase produces the positive symptoms of hallucinations and delusions. As the limbic system is also involved in pleasurable sensations, this pathway may also be involved in negative symptoms. Blockade of the nigrostriatal pathway by the antipsychotics is unintended and results in movement side-effects. To rebalance the extrapyramidal system, an acetylcholine blocker may be administered. In the healthy individual, tonic release of dopamine into this system inhibits the release of prolactin. Unintentional disruption of this system leads to elevation of serum prolactin and the side-effects of gynecomastia, galactorrhea and sexual dysfunction.
The relation of scent-marking best kamagra effervescent 100mg ritalin causes erectile dysfunction, olfactory investiga- 58 effective 100 mg kamagra effervescent impotence problems. Aggressive behavior among female ham- tion, and specific postures in the isolation-induced fighting of sters: the hormonal basis for fluctuations in female aggressiveness rats. The ventromedial hypothalamus and aggressive behav- 443–446. Chicago: University of of brain-stimulation-evoked aggression. New York: of agonistic behaviour in animals and man. A new test for aggression in rats without aversive In: Svare B, ed. New York: stimulation: differential effects of D-amphetamine and cocaine. Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard bridge University Press, 1988. Human territoriality: survey of behavioural territories ing late pregnancy and lactation in rats and effects of litter re- in man with preliminary analysis of meaning. Ethopharmacological studies pharmacology: maternal agonistic behaviour in rats. In: Brain PF, differentiate the effects of various serotonergic compounds on Ramirez MJ, eds. Ethopharmacology of agonistic behaviour in male diazepine receptor ligands on agonistic behaviour. Ethopharmacology of flight behav- havior in golden hamsters. Behavioral and neurobiologi- agonistic behaviour in animals and man. Dordrecht: Martinus cal consequences of social subjugation during puberty in golden Nijhoff, 1987:46–79. Effect of various tion in personality-disordered subjects. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1998; centrally acting drugs on fighting behavior of mice. Is there evidence for a neural the same wound pattern. The induction Neurosci Biobehav Rev 1998;22:597–612. Chichester, UK: John different sized male opponents: effect of chlordiazepoxide treat- Wiley, 1995:289–311. Neuroimaging in aggressive behaviour and its manipulation by brain ablation and impulsive-aggressive personality disorder patients. Neurobiology and clinical views on aggression and behaviour. The reinforcing value of several types of aggressive 80. The interaction of hunger, feeding, and and clinical views on aggression and impulsivity. Huntingford FA, The relationship between intra- and inter-spe- animal models of aggressive behaviour. Science 2000;289: on the role of 5-HT1 receptors in aggression. SIEVER Human aggression constitutes a multidetermined act that ditated and impulsive human aggression has focused on var- often results in physical (or verbal) injury to others or self (or ious genetic, biological, and psychosocial factors and reveals objects). It appears in several forms and may be defensive, a rich and complex picture of human aggression involving premeditated (e. Defensive aggression is generally seen within adoption, and family studies all suggest a genetic influence the normal range of human behavior. However, premedi- underlying aggression (5), with heritability estimates for di- tated and impulsive aggressive behaviors are commonly mensional measures of aggression ranging from 44% to viewed as pathologic. Ametaanalysis of more than 20 twin studies Aggression may be measured as both a dimensional and confirmed a substantial role for a genetic influence underly- a categoric variable. However, whereas aggressive behavior ing aggression (6). Although behavioral genetic studies to (or the tendency to behave aggressively) is truly dimen- date have not attempted to distinguish among aggression sional, it is difficult to estimate the societal relevance of subtypes, impulsive aggression appears to be quite distinct aggressive behavior using dimensional assessments. Overall, the recurring theme tegoric variable, aggressive subjects ('cases') may be emerging from more than 20 years of empiric research is counted in populations of interest. For example, the current that 'impulsive aggression' demonstrates the most consis- age-adjusted rate for homicide in the United States is 0. With respect to physical assault, approximately one- correlates (7,8) and psychopharmacologic treatment (9,10). From these figures, it may be estimated that approxi- tonin (5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT) system, although mately 35 million adults in the United States have engaged limited data is now emerging for a role for other central in at least one serious act of aggression. The rate of individu- systems involving catecholamines, steroids, neuropeptides, als demonstrating 'recurrent, problematic, aggression' is and cholesterol and fatty acids. Using DSM-IV intermittent explosive dis- neuropsychopharmacologic data relevant to these systems order (IED) as a proxy for 'recurrent, problematic, aggres- and concludes with a discussion of the psychopharmacology sion,' Zimmerman et al. Including borderline and antisocial personality- disordered patients, who are also quite aggressive, increases NEUROPSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY OF this number to about 13% of psychiatric outpatients. Re- AGGRESSION gardless, these data suggest that the lifetime prevalence of recurrent, problematic, aggressive behavior may be 1% or Serotonin higher (at least 2. The hypothesis that 5-HT modulates impulsive aggressive Research into the etiologic determinants of both preme- behavior in humans was first advanced in the same year by both Sheard et al. The former group demonstrated that treatment with lithium carbonate Emil F. Coccaro: Department of Psychiatry, University of Chicago, (an agent with putative 5-HT–enhancing properties), but Pritzker School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois. Siever: Psychiatry Service, Bronx Veterans Affairs Medical Cen- not placebo, reduced impulsive aggressive behavior in prison ter, Bronx, New York. Adirect relationship between lumbar patients with low lumbar cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concen- CSF 5-HIAA concentration and aggression in these subjects trations of 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA). This work suggests that aggressiveness may be associated with increased led to a large number of subsequent studies, using a variety (rather than decreased) intrasynaptic concentrations of 5- of 5-HT measures, designed to test the 5-HT hypothesis HT. These data could be consistent with a deficiency hy- of aggression further. If postsynaptic 5-HT function is unchanged (or increased), however, these data 5-HT and Aggression: CSF 5-HIAA Studies would suggest increased 'net' 5-HT function in these sub- Brown et al.