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The fractured fragments bones may be associated with fracture of the are disimpacted by Walsham’s forceps on each frontal process of maxillae and of ethmoid and side buy 100mg kamagra soft mastercard erectile dysfunction drugs and nitroglycerin. Ashe’s septal forceps help to relocate the lacrimal bones producing a flat profile of face septum in the midline (Fig buy 100mg kamagra soft free shipping erectile dysfunction doctor in delhi. An ses and to note the degree of deformity and external nasal splint or plaster of paris cast displacement. Treatment In frontal type of injury, which has caused A fracture causing displacement, deformity or flattening of the bridge line, the fractured obstruction needs reduction. If the patient bones are elevated and may require external 176 Textbook of Ear, Nose and Throat Diseases line passes through the alveolar process, palate and pterygoid process. The fracture line passes through nasal bones, frontal process of maxilla, lacrimal bones, orbital plate, infraorbital mar- gin, anterior wall of the maxilla and pterygoid processes in the middle also involving the Fig. This may craniofacial dissociation and the fracture line be done by passing wires through the nose separates the bones of the middle portion of which are then tied over lead plates on either the face from the cranium. The fracture line passes through the If the patient reports with swelling and zygomatic arches, zygomatic process of fron- ecchymosis, no intervention is made until the tal bones, back of orbit, ethmoids, lacrimal smelling subsides (7 to 14 days) when reduc- bone, frontal process of maxillae and nasal tion under local or general anaesthesia may bones. With an impact of a rounded object on the Immediate attention should be given to restore orbital rim, the contents of the orbit are pushed a proper airway and control the bleeding. The backwards and lead to fracture and collapse principles of treatment include proper reduc- of the inferior wall of orbit which is the tion of displaced fragments maintaining the weakest area. The clinical features position by interdental wiring, plaster of paris include enophthalmos and diplopia. Radio- head cap or crossbars passed through the logical investigation particularly scan and mandible or cranium till union occurs. The floor can be supplemented by a cheek, ecchymosis of lower eyelid, unilateral polythene or silastic sheet or by using a septal cartilage graft. External deformity may be visible and dura may be associated with fracture of the the fracture line can be palpated. It is diagnosed by the characteristic (occipitomental and occipitofrontal views) is feature that the fluid “doesn’t stiffen the hand- done to note the condition of antra and infra- kerchief (since the fluid does not contain any orbital margins. The patient is treated first elevator is passed deep to the temporalis fascia conservatively and kept in the sitting position. Heavy doses of which is then maintained by passing a wire antibiotics should be given and the patient through the segments. The most common route by charge should make the clinician suspicious which a foreign body enters the nose is the of a foreign body in the nose. Sometimes contents from the A foreign body may be visible on anterior mouth or stomach may enter the nasopharynx rhinoscopy or may be obscured by mucopuru- and nose during vomiting or coughing. Rarely lent discharge and granulations in long- a foreign body like gauze pack, injecting standing cases. Inanimate foreign bodies found in the nose include glass beads, buttons, pieces of pencil, Management paper, peas and beans, metal, plastic pieces The patient is usually held in an upright and button cells. A Pathology curved hook is passed beyond the foreign body which is then gently pulled forward. A A foreign body retained in the nose produces eustachian catheter usually serves this an inflammatory reaction and stagnation. When the patient is uncooperative leads to the formation of granulation tissue and the foreign body is impacted or deeply and ulceration. Animate Foreign Bodies Diagnosis Animate foreign bodies include maggots, The history is suggestive but many a time leeches and other insects. In removed by putting pinch of salt, or hyper- Foreign Bodies in the Nose 179 removed with a forceps as maggots crawl out for want of oxygen. Rhinolith Concretion formation in the nose results if a foreign body gets burried in granulations and remains neglected. This forms a nucleus around which a coating of calcium and mag- nesium phosphate and carbonate occurs and thus a rhinolith forms. Sometimes inspissated mucopus or a blood clot may be a nidus around which such a change takes place. It is surgically removed under tonic saline or a few drops of oxalic acid on general anaesthesia. Sometimes a large rhinolith may a ribbon gauze pack soaked in terpentine oil, necessitate a lateral rhinotomy procedure for kept in the nasal cavity for some time and then its removal. Little’s Area The anteroinferior part of the septum is the most common site of bleeding in majority of the cases. Branches from the anterior ethmoid, Factors like coughing, sneezing, straining sphenopalatine, greater palatine and superior and blowing play a contributory role by labial arteries take part in this anastomosis causing rise in the vascular pressure. There is a venous plexus near the poste- Aetiology rior end of the inferior turbinate called The main causes of epistaxis are grouped as Woodruff’s area, which is another common site under: of bleeding in the nose. Trauma: External trauma to the nose and repeated ulceration may be the cause of (accidental), repeated nose picking the nose bleed. Fungal infection Management • Rhinosporidiosis General assessment of the patient’s condition • Blastomycosis is essential. The pulse and blood pressure are • Coccidiomycosis monitored and resuscitative measures like c. Congenital during a bleed, he is asked to clean the nose Telangiectasia (Osler-Weber-Rendu which is then pinched for about 10 minutes. The area is anaesthetised by local nasal sinuses xylocaine pack and cauterisation done. Exanthematous fevers like measles, Nasal packing Every attempt should be made mumps, typhoid to control the bleeding without packing the g. Hodgkin’s disease nose, as this causes further trauma to the nasal 182 Textbook of Ear, Nose and Throat Diseases mucosa, is troublesome for the patient, and nose is packed, as packing disturbs the nasal delays recovery. Various packing is needed when bleeding is haemostatic preparations like adenochrome, profuse and does not stop on pinching the vitamin C and K, and calcium preparations nose. A lubricated or medicated gauze is play only an adjuvant role in stopping the used for this purpose although nowadays bleeding. Packing Alternatively, nasal packing may be should never be done with a dry gauze. In such cases ligation continuous in spite of proper anterior nasal of the blood vessels supplying the nose may packing, then posterior nasal pack may be be the only alternative. This can be done under general The nose is mostly supplied by the external or local anaesthesia supplemented by carotid artery through its sphenopalatine sedation. The threads of artery in the neck or the internal maxillary the pack are attached to the ends of the artery in the sphenopalatine fossa arrests catheters which are then withdrawn into bleeding. The pack is guided by fingers from the area supplied by the anterior ethmoid behind the soft palate. The ligation of ethmoid vessels is done rubber catheter are tied on a rubber piece through a periorbital incision in the medial at the columella.
Less severe cases can be managed on an outpatient basis with oral rehydration and an appropriate antimicrobial agent to prevent spread order kamagra soft 100 mg visa erectile dysfunction medicine in dubai. Cholera wards can be operated even when crowded without hazard to staff and visitors discount 100mg kamagra soft amex erectile dysfunction treatment with fruits, provided standard procedures are observed for hand wash- ing and cleanliness and for the circulation of staff and visitors. In communities with a modern and adequate sewage disposal system, feces can be discharged directly into the sewers without preliminary disinfection. If there is evidence or high likelihood of secondary transmission within households, household members can be given chemoprophylaxis; in adults, tetra- cycline (500 mg 4 times daily) for 3 days or doxycycline a single dose of 300 mg, unless local strains are known or believed to be resistant to tetracycline. Children may also be given tetracycline (50 mg/kg/day in 4 divided doses for 3 days or doxycycline as a single dose of 6 mg/kg). A search by stool culture for unreported cases is recommended only among household members or those exposed to a possi- ble common source in a previously uninfected area. Only severely dehydrated patients need rehydration through intravenous routes to repair ﬂuid and electrolyte loss through diarrhea. As rehydration therapy becomes increasingly effective, patients who survive from hypovolaemic shock and severe dehydration may manifest certain complications, such as hypoglycaemia, that must be recognized and treated promptly. Mild and moderate volume depletion should be corrected with oral solutions, replacing over 4 6 hours a volume matching the estimated ﬂuid loss (approximately 5% of body weight for mild and 7% for moderate dehydration). Continuing losses are replaced by giving, over 4 hours, a volume of oral solution equal to 1. The initial ﬂuid replacement should be 30 mL/kg in the ﬁrst hour for infants and in the ﬁrst 30 minutes for persons over 1 year, after which the patient should be reassessed. In severe cases, appropriate antimicrobial agents can shorten the duration of diarrhea, reduce the volume of rehydration solutions required, and shorten the duration of vibrio excretion. Epidemic measures: 1) Educate the population at risk concerning the need to seek appropriate treatment without delay. Chlorinate public water supplies, even if the source water appears to be uncontaminated. Chlorinate or boil water used for drinking, cooking and washing dishes and food containers unless the water supply is adequately chlorinated and subsequently protected from contamination. After cooking or boiling, protect against contamina- tion by ﬂies and insanitary handling; leftover foods should be thoroughly reheated (70°C—or 158°F—for at least 15 minutes) before ingestion. Food served at funerals of cholera victims may be particularly hazardous if the body has been prepared for burial by the participants without stringent precautions and this practice should be discouraged during epidemics. Disaster implications: Outbreak risks are high in endemic areas if large groups of people are crowded together without safe water in sufﬁcient quantity, adequate food handling or sanitary facilities. International measures: 1) Governments are required to report cholera cases due to V. No country requires proof of cholera vaccination as a condi- tion of entry and the International Certiﬁcate of Vaccina- tion no longer provides a speciﬁc space for the recording of cholera vaccination. Immunization with either of the new oral vaccines can be recommended for individuals from industrialized countries travelling to areas of en- demic or epidemic cholera. In countries where the new oral vaccines are already licensed, immunization is par- ticularly recommended for travellers with known risk factors such as hypochlorhydria (consequent to partial gastrectomy or medication) or cardiac disease (e. They have been associated with wound infection and also, rarely, isolated from patients (usually immunocompromised hosts) with septice- mic disease. The non-O1/ non-O139 strains isolated from blood of septicemic patients have been heavily encapsulated. Mode of transmission—Cases of non-O1/non-O139 gastroenteri- tis are usually linked to consumption of raw or undercooked seafood, particularly shellﬁsh. In tropical endemic areas, some infections may be due to ingestion of surface waters. Wound infections arise from environ- mental exposure, usually to brackish water or from occupational accidents among ﬁshermen, shellﬁsh harvesters, etc. In high-risk hosts septicemia may result from a wound infection or from ingestion of contaminated seafood. Incubation period—Short, 12–24 hours in outbreaks and an average of 10 hours in experimental challenge of volunteers (range 5. Period of communicability—It is not known whether in nature these infections can be transmitted from person to person or by humans contaminating food vehicles. If the latter indeed occurs, the period of potential communicability would likely be limited to the period of vibrio excretion, usually several days. Susceptibility—All humans are believed to be susceptible to gastroenteritis if they ingest a sufﬁcient number of non-O1/non-O139 V. Septicae- mia develops only in hosts such as those who are immunocompromised, have chronic liver disease or severe malnutrition. Preventive measures: 1) Educate consumers about the risks associated with eating raw seafood unless it has been irradiated or well cooked for 15 minutes at 70°C/158°F. Control of patient, contacts and immediate environment; Epidemic measures and Disaster implica- tions: See Staphylococcal food intoxication (section I, 9B except for B2, 9C and 9D). Patients with liver disease or who are immunosuppressed (because of treatment or underlying disease) and alcoholics should be warned not to eat raw seafood. When disease occurs in these individuals, a history of eating seafood and especially the presence of bullous skin lesions justify early institution of antibioherapy, with a combination of oral minocycline (100 mg every 12 h) and intravenous cefotaxime (2 grams every 8 h) as the treatment regimen of choice. Identiﬁcation—An intestinal disorder characterized by watery di- arrhoea and abdominal cramps in nearly all cases, usually with nausea, vomiting, fever and headache. Typically, it is a disease of moderate severity lasting 1–7 days; systemic infection and death rarely occur. Twelve different O antigen groups and approximately 60 different K antigen types have been identiﬁed. Pathogenic strains are generally (but not always) capable of producing a characteristic hemolytic reaction (the “Kanagawa phenomenon”). During the cold season, organisms are found in marine silt; during the warm season, they are found free in coastal waters and in ﬁsh and shellﬁsh. Incubation period—Usually between 12 and 24 hours, but can range from 4 to 30 hours. Period of communicability—Not normally communicable from person to person (except fecal-oral transmission). Susceptibility and resistance—Most people are probably suscep- tible, especially in case of liver disease, decreased gastric acidity, diabetes, peptic ulcer or immunosuppression. Control of patient, contacts and immediate environment; Epidemic measures and Disaster implica- tions: See Staphylococcal food intoxication (section I, 9C and 9D). If septicemia, effective antimicrobials (aminoglycosides, third-generation cephalosporins, ﬂuoroquinolones, tetracycline). Identiﬁcation—Infection with Vibrio vulniﬁcus produces septice- mia in persons with chronic liver disease, chronic alcoholism or hemo- chromatosis, or those who are immunosuppressed. The disease appears 12 hours to 3 days after eating raw or undercooked seafood, especially oysters. One-third of patients are in shock when they present for care or develop hypotension within 12 hours after hospital admission. Three- quarters of patients have distinctive bullous skin lesions; thrombocytope- nia is common and there is often evidence of disseminated intravascular coagulation. Over 50% of patients with primary septicemia die; the case-fatality rate exceeds 90% among those who become hypotensive.
The zone of provisional calcifica- particularly in the pubic rami generic kamagra soft 100mg with amex erectile dysfunction use it or lose it, sacrum order 100mg kamagra soft amex erectile dysfunction 5gs, and calcaneus. There will be evidence of retarded growth and development in rickets, but in my experience this tends to be more marked when the vitamin D deficiency is associated with chronic diseases that reduce calorie in- take, general well-being, and activity (i. Evidence of secondary hyperparathyroidism, with increased osteoclastic resorption, is always evident histologically, although not always radiographically. Metaphyseal chondrodysplasias encompass a variety of inherited bone dysplasias in which there are metaphy- seal abnormalities ranging from mild (Schmit Type) to severe (Jansen) . Osteomalacia: to differentiate these dysplasias from other rachitic disor- Looser’s zone in the ders that the radiographic abnormalities at the metaphy- medial aspect of the ses may simulate. The other typical features of Paget’s disease serve as distinguishing radiological Glucose, inorganic phosphate, and amino acids are ab- features. However, as in rickets, osteomalacic bone is cose, or amino acids alone, or in combination, with addi- soft and bends. This is evident radiographically by pro- tional defects in urine acidification and concentration. There may be bowing of the long bones of the X-linked hypophosphatemia), or later in life (e. This may be proic acid), deposition of heavy metals or other sub- manifested radiographically as subperiosteal erosion, par- stances (multiple myeloma, cadmium, lead, mercury), in ticularly in the phalanges but other sites (sacroiliac joints, relation to immunological disorders (interstitial nephritis, symphysis pubis, proximal tibia, outer ends of the clavi- renal transplantation), or to the production of a humoral cle, skull vault – “pepperpot” skull) may be involved, de- substance in tumor-induced osteomalacia, also know as pending on the intensity of the hyperparathyroidism and “oncogenic rickets” [53, 54]. There may also be cortical ders, rickets or osteomalacia can be caused by multiple tunnelling and a hazy trabecular pattern. When serum concave endplates, due to deformation of the malacic calcium is generally normal, secondary hyperparathy- bone by the cartilaginous intervertebral disc (“cod fish” roidism does not occur. The bone disease associated with chronic renal impair- Sporadic cases also occur through spontaneous muta- ment is complex and multifactorial, and has changed over tions. The disease is characterised by phospha- ondary hyperparathyroidism (erosions, osteosclerosis, turia throughout life, hypophosphatemia, rickets and os- brown cysts) predominated, improvement in management teomalacia. Clinically affected individuals may be short and therapy have resulted in such radiographic features in stature, principally due to defective growth in the legs, being present in a minority of patients. New complications (amyloid depo- and large pharmacological doses of vitamin D (hence the sition, noninfective spondyloarthropathy, osteonecrosis) term “vitamin D-resistant rickets”) may heal the radio- are now seen in long-term hemodialysis and/or renal logical features of rickets, and also increase longitudinal transplantation. The metaphy- In extreme cases of soft-tissue calcification, there may seal margin tends to be less indistinct than in nutritional be ischemic necrosis of the skin, muscle and subcuta- rickets and the affected metaphysis is not as wide. This condi- Changes are most marked at the knee, wrist, ankle, and tion can occur in patients with advanced renal disease, in proximal femur. Although Looser’s zones may heal with appropriate treatment, those that have been pre- sent for many years persist radiographically and are pre- sumably filled with fibrous tissue. This is a feature of the disease and is not re- lated to treatment with vitamin D and phosphate supple- ments, as it is present in those who have not received treatment. This bone sclerosis can involve the petrous bone and structures of the inner ear, and may be respon- sible for the hydropic cochlea pattern of deafness that these patients can develop in later life . X-linked hypophosphatemia is characterised by an en- thesopathy, in which there is inflammation in the junc- tional area between bone and tendon insertion that heals by ossification at affected sites . This may result in complete ankylosis of the spine, resembling ankylos- ing spondylitis, and clinically limiting mobility. Ossification can occur in the in- terosseous membrane of the forearm and in the leg be- b tween the tibia and the fibula. Separate, small ossicles may be present around the joints of the hands and ossifi- cation of tendon insertions in the hands cause “whisker- ing” of bone margins. Ossification of the ligamentum flavum causes the most significant narrowing of the spinal canal and occurs most commonly in the thoracic spine, generally involving two or three adjacent segments. Affected patients may be asymptomatic, even when there is severe spinal-canal narrowing. It is important to be aware of this tubulated, with ricketic changes at the metaphyses. The extent of in- bones with a coarse trabeular pattern traspinal ossification cannot be predicted by the degree of paraspinal or extra skeletal ossification at other sites. Computed tomography is a useful imaging technique for demonstrating the extent of intraspinal ossification. The extent to which wide in relation to bone length) with bowing of the femur radiographic abnormalities of rickets and osteomalacia, and tibia, which may be marked. In some, all the features are present those in nutritional osteomalacia and often affect the out- and are thus diagnostic of the condition. In others, there er cortex of the bowed femur, although they also occur may only be minor abnormalities and the diagnosis of along the medial cortex of the shaft. The abnormalities at the growth plates resemble ets and osteomalacia was first reported in 1947 . The nutritional vitamin D deficiency rickets, but in hy- condition is characterized by phosphaturia and hy- pophosphatasia there are larger, irregular lucent defects pophosphatemia induced by a factor (phosphatonin) pro- that often extend into the metaphyses and diaphyses. The long bones, partic- tubule) and is associated with the clinical and radi- ularly those in the lower limbs, become bowed, fractures ographic features of rickets and osteomalacia. Such fractures tures may precede identification of the causative tumor may or may not heal; when they do unite, it is through by long periods (1-16 years). In severe disease, small, benign, and of vascular origin (hemangiopericy- multiple fractures may cause deformity and limb short- toma), but there is now known to be a wide spectrum of ening. Initially, the skull sutures are widened due to poor tumors that may result in this syndrome, some of which mineralization of the skull vault; later, premature fusion may be malignant . This can result in raised in- nate in the skeleton and occur in neurofibromatosis. The tracranial pressure, bulging of the anterior fontanelle, biochemical abnormalities will be cured, and the rickets proptosis and papilloedema. Wormian (intersutural) and osteomalacia will heal, with surgical removal of the bones may be identified. Often the tumors are extremely small and In adult onset of the disease, the presenting clinical elude detection for many years. It is important that the af- feature is usually a fracture, occurring after relatively fected patient is vigilant about self examination and re- minor trauma, particularly in the metatarsals. Chondrocalcinosis and extraskeletal os- sification of tendinous and ligamentous insertions to Other Causes of Rickets and Osteomalacia bone may occur . The diagnosis is confirmed by the Not Related to Vitamin D Deficiency or biochemical changes of reduced alkaline phosphatase Hypophosphatemia and raised blood and urine phosphoethanolamine. As there is no effective treatment for hypophosphatasia, se- Hypophosphatasia verely affected patients can prove a challenge to ortho- pedic management . Hypophosphatasia is a rare disorder that was first de- scribed by Rathbun, in 1948 . It is generally trans- mitted as an autosomal recessive trait, but autosomal Osteoporosis dominant inheritance has also been reported. The disease is characterized by reduced levels of serum alkaline Introduction phosphatase (both bone and liver isoenzymes), with raised levels of phosphoethanolamine in the blood and Osteoporosis is the most common metabolic bone dis- the urine. Serum calcium and phosphorus levels are not ease, and affects one in three postmenopausal women and reduced; in perinatal and infantile disease there can be one in twelve men in their lifetime.
He is to its tracheal end and brought out through advised to talk buy cheap kamagra soft 100 mg line online erectile dysfunction drugs reviews, talk and talk which would the tracheostome and secured to the skin of keep the neoglottis patent discount kamagra soft 100mg overnight delivery erectile dysfunction what age does it start. In this Modified Radical Dissection operation the different groups of deep cervical lymph nodes, internal jugular vein, sterno- It consists of removal of all lymph node groups cleidomastoid muscle, submandibular with preservation of one or more nonlym- gland, tail of the parotid and the accessory phatic structures. In type 1, the spinal acces- nerve are removed en bloc with the primary sory nerve is preserved. The dissections are named American Academic Committee for head according to the lymph node group removed. Modified radical neck dissection resected in radical neck dissection and one or 3. Neck Block Dissection of the Neck 373 dissection may be extended to remove para- 3. When there is reasonable expectation of tracheal, pre-tracheal and retropharyngeal controlling the primary tumour. Primary lesion which cannot be removed Block dissection of the neck is indicated in the and controlled. In a patient of head and neck cancer with no apparent involvement of the neck nodes Various incisions used for block dissection of but who is unlikely to return for follow- the neck are shown in Figure 67. The up and has a tumour with a known high structures that are preserved after a radical incidence of neck node metastasis. Nerve damage: The spinal accessory nerve is routinely sacrificed in radical neck 1. This leads to postoperative of the internal jugular vein, subclavian vein shoulder drop and pain in that region. The or carotid artery can be a serious problem nerves which may be damaged during during the operation, while subcutaneous dissection are the superior laryngeal nerve, haematomas may form in the post- vagus, facial, lingual, hypoglossal and operative period. A chylous fistula may form due to thora- rative laryngeal oedema in cases of cic duct injury. A lateral bud from the fourth pharyngeal pouch of each side amal- Nodular Goitre gamates with it and completes the corresponding lateral lobe. Struma lymphomatosa (Hashimoto’s different portions of the gland result in gross disease) nodularity. The nodules though circumscribed 376 Textbook of Ear, Nose and Throat Diseases Treatment Partial thyroidectomy is the treatment of choice. Retrosternal Goitre This is mostly acquired though a few cases are congenital in origin. Substernal: There is a prolongation of a cervical goitre downwards behind the sternum. Intrathoracic: The whole thyroid is situated within the thorax between the great veins and resting upon the aorta. Plunging goitre: The thyroid is wholly intrathoracic but from time to time it is by delicate capsule, are difficult or impossible forced into the neck by raised intrathora- to enucleate. Cholesterol crystals Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis are present and in some cases fibrous tissue overgrows and later on calcification occurs. In severe endemic areas, by the age of 6 years, about 20 per cent boys and 30 per cent girls present a visible and palpable smooth, soft enlargement of the thyroid gland (Fig. It may regress or disappear in some while in others it becomes multinodular by 30 years of age. Adenomas Dessicated thyroid, 3 doses (200 mgm) daily are most common in middle-aged females, causes regression or L-thyroxine is used. These are capsulated and the Thyroid cancer is uncommon and the most microscopic patterns include follicular, common way for it to present is as a solitary microfollicular, hurthle cell and embryonal. The female to male ratio for malig- can originate from any of the cellular nant tumours of thyroid gland is about 2. The vast majority, however arise from patients and further evaluation and subse- follicular cells, and other types are rare. The only known neoplasm of Histopathological Types of parafollicular cell origin is the medullary Thyroid Tumour carcinoma. Malignant lymphomas are Solitary non-functioning nodules of the uncommon, usually arising from a lympho- thyroid gland are either cystic or solid, and cytic thyroiditis and sarcomas are very rare. Much functioning solid nodules will prove to be more common is direct spread by continuity malignant. The thyroid may less commonly and contiguity from carcinomas of either the be involved by direct spread of cancers from larynx or postcricoid region. Three types of thyroid neoplasms are Benign enlargement of the thyroid gland common: is common. Microscopically, they contain nodules of various sizes with Papillary carcinoma This is the most common flattened folliclar epithelium. This usually presents as a tumour may present as a solitary thyroid 378 Textbook of Ear, Nose and Throat Diseases nodule, but the rest of the gland may also High-risk tumours including the papillary and contain microscopic nodules. This type of follicular carcinomas greater than 1cm in size tumour spreads mostly by direct invasion and are also treated with local thyroidectomy, as lymphatics. Patients Follicular carcinoma This is a typically encap- under 16 years with a diagnosis of diffe- sulated tumour with minimal invasive rentiated thyroid cancer should be regarded characteristics. This type of tumour spreads as high-risk, and are usually best treated mainly by blood to bones or viscera and less aggressively. It presents as a single hard following the conservative surgery further nodule and may spread to any group of treatment (complete thyroidectomy) is likely lymph nodes in the neck. The intermediate group of All the types of tumours may cause symp- patients consists of a low-risk patient (female toms due to pressure on or direct involve- under 45 years) with high-risk tumour or a ment of trachea, recurrent laryngeal nerve, high risk patient with low-risk tumour oesophagus and neck veins. Tumours Thyroid neoplasms are treated by surgery of the isthmus can be treated by an isthmusec- (thyroidectomy) supplemented by radio- tomy and a 1cm margin. The Follicular Adenocarcinoma patient is put on thyroid hormone replace- The management of follicular adenocarci- ment therapy after surgery. Papillary Adenocarcinoma Subsequently ablation of any thyroid A patient with papillary adenocarcinoma with remnants is performed, followed in 3 months a large mass in one lobe of the thyroid asso- by screening for residual disease in the neck ciated with metastatic lymph nodes in the neck or distant metastasis. Hurthle cell cancers requires a total thyroidectomy and neck should be managed as follicular cancers. Treatment strategy for differen- tiated (papillary and follicular) thyroid cancer Medullary Carcinoma in high-risk patients including all males and The principal treatment advised for the females over 45 years is total thyroidectomy. There is no role for therefore, sometimes indicated (but not elective neck surgery. Palpable disease usually feasible), so that radiotherapy requires modified radical or radical neck remains the principal treatment for this dissection. As these and more advanced disease should, in tumours arise from parafollicular cells, it is addition, receive appropriate chemotherapy, not surprising that they do not concentrate if permitted by their general condition. Postoperative radio therapy is indicated if there is any suggestion of Anaplastic Tumours macroscopic residual disease in the neck and/ or multiple large nodal metastasis with A biopsy is mandatory to confirm that a extracapsular extension.