Kovatcheva-Datchary P tadapox 80mg mastercard erectile dysfunction 33 years old, Arora T (2013) Nutrition 80mg tadapox with amex fluoride causes erectile dysfunction, the gut microbiome and the metabolic syndrome. Vijayakumari K, Siddhuraju P, Janardhanan K (1996) Effect of different post-harvest treat- ments on antinutritional factors in seeds of the tribal pulse, Mucuna pruriens (L. Al-Asmakh M, Anuar F, Zadjali F, Rafter J, Pettersson S (2012) Gut microbial communities modulating brain development and function. Douglas-Escobar M, Elliott E, Neu J (2013) Effect of intestinal microbial ecology on the developing brain. Lyte M (2014) Microbial endocrinology: host-microbiota neuroendocrine interactions inﬂuencing brain and behavior. When the balance between host and microbes is disrupted, risk for disease increases. Understanding this dysbiosis is challenging because of the extraordinary complexity of the gut ecosystem and the tremendous variability between healthy individuals in the taxa that make up the human microbiome. Advances in technology, especially sequencing technology, are beginning to allow for a full description of this complexity. In this review, we consider how new “omics” technology can be applied to the study of the gut ecosystem in human and animal models with special consideration given to factors that should be considered in the design of experiments and clinical trials. All gut microbes are acquired from the external environment and for the ﬁrst 3 years of life the diversity and complexity of the gut microbial community steadily increases . By the 3rd year of life, the microbial community is more stable but numerous studies have repeatedly shown that there is a high degree of individual variation in the microbial community between different people [7–13]. The factors that determine why different people end up with such different microbial communities are poorly understood, although twin studies suggest that host genetics does not exert sub- stantial control over the composition of the microbial community . If we are to understand how host and microbes together produce the full spectrum of health and disease phenotypes, we will need to determine which alleles are represented and expressed in the host, which microbes are present and where in the gut microenvironment the microbes are found and, for both host and microbes, how genes are expressed to produce metabolites within activated pathways. To understand the state of the human and microbial ecosystem in the gut, therefore, requires an accounting of an ecosystem of phenomenal complexity. There are on the order of three billion base pairs in the human genome , but there are ~10 times more bacterial cells within the human body than bacterial cells  and encoded within the genomes of those microbial cells is likely more than 100 times more distinct genes than are encoded within the human genome . And, of course, only knowing the genome sequence of either host or microbes by itself does not tell us which genes are expressed or where or when or how epigenetic changes to genomes inﬂuence pathway structure and function. Within the last decade, there has been explosive growth in “omics” technologies that are allowing us to begin to approach an initial accounting of this tremendous complexity. Newly armed with ever more affordable sequencing technology, biologists have begun to characterize in detail the complex microbial gut environment. In this 2 Utilizing “Omics” Tools to Study the Complex Gut Ecosystem 27 review, we will discuss the technologies that are making this exploration possible together with the experimental and bioinformatics challenges inherent to performing studies that try to link the state of the microbial community to host disease phenotypes. It is especially useful for phylogenetic characterization because it con- sists of a number of “variable regions”, which tend to be different in different bacteria, separated by “conserved regions”, which tend to be the same across a wide phylogenetic space. Before the advent of next-generation sequencing, capillary-based Sanger sequencing was often performed on clone-libraries created from the 16S gene. This approach has been widely utilized and successfully generated descriptions of microbial communities both associated with the human microbiome [19, 20] and external environmental microbial communities such as soil and ocean. Because sequences generated from clone libraries are relatively difﬁcult and expensive to generate, studies that characterized microbial communities via sequencing of clone libraries generally could only achieve on the order of 100 16S sequences per sample, and only then with a great deal of expense and effort. Next generation sequencing eliminated the need for the laborious cloning step even as it offered nucleotide base costs that were orders of magnitude cheaper than Sanger sequencing. Next generation sequencing platforms exploit massively parallel chemistry in which numerous sequencing reactions are run at the same time and the results captured with a computer camera. Because many sequencing reactions are run in parallel, next generation sequencing platforms such as Illumina and 454 generate sequences much more quickly than older dye-termination based technologies. In 2005, the year in which the 454 sequencing platform was described in a Nature paper , there were ~136,000 16S sequences cataloged in the Ribosomal Database Project (http://rdp. Today, using the Illumina HiSeq platform, we can routinely gen- erate 100 million 16S sequences for a cost of only a few thousand dollars [4, 22, 23]. This ability to generate with next generation sequencing in a single experiment more sequences than had been accumulated world-wide in decades of dye 28 A. Fodor termination sequencing provides an enormous opportunity to interrogate complex ecosystems, such as the human gut, while maintaining a sensitivity to detect even rare taxa. Some of these challenges involve ﬁnding the hard-disk space and network capacity to handle these large volumes of sequence data. Without proper planning for these mundane considerations, it is not uncommon for the initial analysis of metagenomics projects to be severely impacted. There has been considerable recent interest in developing cloud computing capacity to handle these challenges  and investigators consid- ering generation of large sequence datasets may wish to explore storing and analyzing their data in the cloud . Bioinformatics challenges can also arise from the short read length inherent to the currently popular next-generation platforms. The early 454 platforms had a read length of only ~100 basepairs  and the initial 454 pyrosequencing character- izations of ocean microbial communities therefore utilized this read-length [27, 28]. Recent Illumina platforms, while many orders of magnitude cheaper than 454 sequencing, also have a read length of only 100 basepairs, but 16S sequences of this length can clearly distinguish the microbial community in inﬂamed and non-inﬂamed mammalian guts  showing the utility of even such short reads. In order to place the information in these sequences into a phylogenetic context, we can build a tree that shows the relationship of the sequences to one another (Fig. Each node of the tree represents a cluster of sequences that have on average 97 % identity to one another. Nodes of the tree that are close to one another have sequences that are more similar while nodes that are further from each other. As we would expect, most of the bacteria that we see in the human gut can be assigned to the phyla Bacteroidetes or Firmicutes, although other phyla, notably Proteobacteria which harbors many known pathogens, are also present. For each taxa in the tree, we can form a null hypothesis that the relative abundance of that taxa is not different in the case and control subjects. P-values can be generated for each null hypothesis using a non-parametric Wilcoxon test. In setting thresholds for signiﬁcance, we must be careful to correct for testing multiple hypotheses. Branches that are colored red represent taxa that are signiﬁcantly different between cases and controls at a 10 % False Discovery Rate (see  for methodological details) signiﬁcantly different to be false positives. Each taxa that was found to be signif- icantly different between case (adenomas) and control at this threshold is colored red in Fig. We see that many of the taxa that are different between case and control are in the phyla Proteobacteria. By creating a visualization that merges phylogeny with canonical hypothesis testing, we are therefore able to begin to implicate speciﬁc groups of taxa in disease (see  for more information). Given that early 16S sequencing experiments based on clone libraries could be performed generating less than a hundred reads per sample, it may seem foolish to plan 16S experiments with read depths of over a million sequences per sample. But a simple thought experiment shows that such sequence depths are not inappropriate. On average 100 sequences must be obtained to observe 1 sequence that represents such a rare taxon. If one wishes to study a population with a 1,000-fold range in such a taxon, one must utilize an additional 1,000-fold sequencing depth in order to maintain the full dynamic, quantitative range of sensitivity across people with different relative abundances of the taxon. Finally, in utilizing 454 and Illumina sequences, a barcode method is used in which many samples are put together on the same sequencing run [32, 33].
If you find you are gaining weight order discount tadapox on line erectile dysfunction depression, you need to think of not only cutting calories cheap tadapox 80mg without a prescription erectile dysfunction toys, but also about increasing physical activity. Physical activity burns calories, increases the proportion of lean to fat body mass, and raises your metabolism. Eating Disorders Two common types of eating disorders are anorexia nervosa and bulimia. Some behaviors associated with these conditions are starvation, self-induced vomiting, excessive exercise, and the misuse of laxatives or diuretics. Symptoms of eating disorders are fear of gaining weight, food obsessions, avoidance of meals, rigid dieting and fasting, rigorous exercise, weight loss, unusual mood states (such as confusion, lethargy, and depression), swollen salivary glands, erosion of dental enamel (from stomach acid dissolving teeth during vomiting), dark circles under the eyes, low self-esteem, declining performance, and lack of menstrual periods. Eating disorders are extremely damaging to the mind and body, and can be fatal if untreated. The female athlete triad is found among female athletes trying to balance the pressures of body image and peak physical performance. The triad is marked by inadequate food intake, menstrual abnormalities (irregular or absent cycles), and bone loss (weak bones at increased risk for fractures). In well-nourished women, heavy physical training may not result in amenorrhea (three or more missed menstrual cycles), which may reflect malnutrition. It is key to establish a healthy relationship between food, body image and performance. Resources to help with eating disorders are found at: National Institute of Mental Health http://www. Choose a diet low in animal fat and sodium, and rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and 7-10 low-fat or nonfat dairy products. Be aware that sexual activity can transmit disease, and modify behavior accordingly. Medical experts agree that good health depends on use of preventive services and good personal lifestyle habits. Chemical agents are typically manmade through the use of industrial chemical processes. Biological agents are either replicating agents (bacteria or viruses) or nonreplicating materials (toxins or physiologically active proteins or peptides) that can be produced by living organisms. Nuclear/radiological threats primarily derive from the release of ionizing radiation from a deliberate attack with a nuclear or radiological bomb. The first section of this chapter will focus on biological agents, the second part on chemical agents. The chapter ends with a discussion of potential nuclear and radiological exposures. Note that there is significant overlap in the symptoms caused by and initial responses to biological and chemical agents. Wherever appropriate, discussion will describe approaches to both biological and chemical agents. They hurled the plague stricken corpses over the city walls and introduced an epidemic among the defenders. Some historians feel this to be the initiation of the Black Death pandemic that spread throughout Europe. It is felt that the English provided smallpox-laden blankets to Indians loyal to the French during the French and Indian War from 1754 to 1767. A plague epidemic in China and Manchuria in 1940 followed reported over-flights by Japanese airplanes releasing plague-infested fleas. Over many years, various countries have been documented to have some type of offensive biological development program. It is therefore prudent that we be aware of the most likely agents to be used and what we can do to counter and treat these agents. Thus, it is important for persons afloat to be familiar with potential threats, and especially critical for those responsible for health care underway to have an understanding of the medical aspects of bioterrorism. Medical defense against and treatment for biological terrorism is an unfamiliar area to most providers of health care during peacetime. However, effective medical countermeasures are available against many of the bacteria, viruses, and toxins that might be used as biological weapons against people. The goal of this section is to serve as a reference and to help the reader develop an understanding of the biological threats and the medical supplies useful in defending against these threats. The global biological terrorism threat is serious, and the potential for devastating casualties is high for certain biological agents. However, with appropriate use of medical countermeasures either already developed or under development, the illness and death can be greatly reduced. As much as possible, food and water should be obtained from reputable and secure sources. Biologic agent exposure could come in the form of an aerial release from an aircraft, from an exploded munition or from an aerosolizing device. Crewmembers should be wary of suspicious persons in or around the ship and of suspicious packages, parcels, etc. However, in spite of precautions taken, it is likely that the initial exposure to the biological agent will be undetected. Therefore, a covert biological agent attack may first be apparent if many patients become sick with similar symptoms due to the released disease agent. However, many diseases caused by weaponized biological agents present with nonspecific clinical features that could seem like other, more common diseases. While a helpful guide, these features can also be present in a naturally occurring disease outbreak. Features that may be Present with a Biologic Warfare or Therrorist Attack The following guiding principles should be followed whether a biological or chemical attack is suspected. The shipboard health-care provider must always suspect that a disease may be due to biological weapons. An early suspicion is needed for a rapid diagnosis that is essential for the early treatment needed to save the patient’s life. Before you approach a potential biological casualty, you must first take steps to protect yourself - using physical, pharmacological, and/or immunologic tools. These provide adequate protection against most biological (although not against chemical) threats. Pharmacological protection includes the pre- and/or post-exposure administration of antibiotics and/or antidotes. Immunological protection involves vaccines, which are generally not available for most bio-terrorism diseases. A patient history may include questions about illnesses in other personnel, the presence of unusual food and water sources, vector exposure, immunization history, travel history, occupational duties, and personal protection status. The incubation period of biological agents makes it unlikely that victims of a bio-terrorism attack will present for medical care until days after an attack, when the need for decontamination is past.
Probiotics such as yogurt can replenish commensal gut bacteria purchase tadapox 80mg with visa impotence of organic origin icd 9, but cigarette smoking compromises the efficacy of the bronchial cilial escalator buy 80mg tadapox erectile dysfunction drugs australia. Lectins are molecules of nonimmunologic origin that bind to specific carbo- hydrate receptors, some of which line the gut wall. Histamine increases intestinal permeability, and the risk of absorbing allergens is increased. Persons susceptible to food allergy should avoid foods rich in lectins such as peanuts, beans, lentils, and wheat. Nonspecific Immunity Once the superficial barrier has been breached, the body mounts a cellular and humoral inflammatory response (see Figure 3-6). Phagocytosis and cytolytic elimination of foreign material are the primary activities of non- specific immune cells. Chapter 3 / Self-Regulation 59 A positive feedback system is set up whereby cells, while responding to chemotactic factors released in the area of tissue injury, also contribute to the concentration of humoral factors in the inflammatory site. It also attracts other neutrophils and monocytes to the area, thereby escalating the total response. Platelets, in addition to being fundamental to hemostasis, contribute to the inflammatory response. Cellular function influences diverse interacting systems: the positive feed- back system that triggers platelets enhances the nonspecific inflammatory response and promotes blood coagulation. Acute inflammation involves multiple cells secreting various chemicals that enhance the diverse aspects of the inflammatory process. Unilinear cause-effect relationships are submerged in a web of inter- acting processes. The more exaggerated the tissue response, the more severe are the redness, swelling, and pain. Fundamental to the clinical manifestations of acute inflammation is the need to trigger the vascular response. Mast cells serve as local activators of acute inflamma- tion; they trigger the vascular response in acute inflammation. Mast cells release the chemical mediators of a local inflammatory response on exposure to physical trauma or chemical insult (e. Chemicals immedi- ately released on mast cell degranulation include the following: ● Histamine, which enhances vasodilation and aids perfusion of inflamed tissue ● Neutrophil chemotactic factor ● Eosinophil chemotactic factor The immediate effect of mast cell degranulation is to increase blood flow and draw phagocytic cells to the local area. This vascular response is responsible for the heat, swelling, redness, and pain experienced early in inflammation. It is characterized by local redness and warmth caused by vascular dilation and swelling caused by fluid extravasation from affected vessels into the extracellular space. As time passes, mast cells synthesize and secrete additional proinflam- matory chemicals. In contrast, although some of the prostaglandin products augment inflammation, some of the eicosanoid products of essential fatty acid metabolism tend to reduce inflammation. The cellular response supports the vascular response and supplies building blocks necessary for nonspecific immunity, and later, specific immunity. The cellular response enhances the vascular response, removing debris and laying down connective tissue as part of the healing process. Circulating cells drawn to the area include polymorphonuclear leuko- cytes, mononuclear phagocytic cells, and platelets. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes are produced in the bone marrow and circulate in the blood as neutrophils, basophils, and eosinophils. Eosinophils are not as efficient as killers but are more important in parasitic infections. Basophils contain granules of chemical factors that enhance inflammation; basophils are found in the blood and probably have a function similar to that of tissue-bound mast cells. In contrast to poly- morphonuclear phagocytes, mononuclear phagocytes tend to remain con- fined to their local area. Macrophages process foreign material and present antigen to the specific immune system. Macrophages process antigens and provide a link between general and targeted immune responses. Neutrophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes adhere to the vascular endothelium and migrate into the surrounding tissue. Interaction between leukocytes and the endothelial cells lining the blood vessels, leading to the migration of cells into damaged areas, involves the following: ● Thethering: Circulating cells are slowed. Selectins recog- nize specific carbohydrate sequences on either leukocytes or endothelial cells. These cells eliminate can- cer- or virus-infected cells by nonspecifically targeting the cell membrane and releasing cytolytic enzymes. Mononuclear and polymorphonuclear phagocytes participate in the inflammatory response, generating free radicals as they attempt to eliminate foreign or dead cells. Triggers of phagocytosis are opsonized bacteria and diverse stimuli that acti- vate cell membrane receptors (e. Enzymes in the primary granules of phagocytic cells such as proteases, lysozyme, and myeloperoxidase facili- tate destruction of ingested material. Bacteria and viruses are destroyed by phagocytic cells with an oxidative burst that produces nitric oxide, super- oxide, hydrogen peroxide, and halide anions (I–, Cl–, Br–). Unless adequately contained, the cellular products that are toxic to bacteria can result in untoward cellular destruction. Reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase reduces oxygen to superoxide. Superoxide dismutase rapidly converts superoxide to hydrogen peroxide, which is detoxified by catalase and oxidative reduction of glutathione (see Figure 3-7). Imprecise control of this and other physiologic processes that generate energy and render microbes innocuous can have pathologic consequences. Chronic hepatitis carries an increased risk of liver cancer; schistosomiasis carries the risk of colon or bladder cancer, depending on the Schistosoma species responsible for the infection. Although a positive feedback system is necessary to enhance the inflam- matory response, an uncontrolled response can result in excess tissue damage. Eosinophils contain enzymes that dampen the vascular effects of inflammatory response by various mechanisms including degradation of histamine and leukotrienes. Inflammation is augmented by chemical mediators such as serotonin, histamine, kinins, eicosanoids, complement, and lym- phokines. These chemicals enhance inflammation, aid phagocytosis, and interact with the specific immune system to achieve cytolysis. Inflammatory mediators may circulate, in an inactive form, in plasma or be produced by a diversity of cells. It is chemotactic for and activates neutrophils and nonhematopoeitic cells involved in wound healing. A number of chemicals in plasma, when activated, participate in the inflammatory process.
A phage’s potential to display It is my view that this more stringent lysogenic cycles discount tadapox 80 mg mastercard erectile dysfunction in diabetes ppt, however buy cheap tadapox 80 mg line diabetes-induced erectile dysfunction epidemiology pathophysiology and management, may not always be characterization should not be an absolute obvious or necessarily easy to establish. For later-stage develop- that no bacteria will become phage immune ment of phage-therapy protocols, especially in the course of successful phage infection ones using human subjects, phage encoding (Fogg et al. By contrast, phages or their immediate descendants study of the phage potential to inadvertently (Hyman and Abedon, 2008); and (iii) non- transduce bacterial virulence factor genes via temperate phages ofen disrupt bacterial generalized or specialized transduction has chromosomes in a manner that makes not been a priority among phage-therapy generalized transduction less likely (Wilson researchers. In addition, where possible, been shown, as explicitly indicated in the propagation of phages in vitro for publications, to form clear plaques when subsequent use in vivo should be conducted plated on potential target bacteria (and, for a using bacterial hosts that lack virulence factor higher level of stringency, demonstration that genes. Has reasonable ex situ phage anti- centres, which serves as a marker for phage bacterial virulence been observed? Furthermore, not In vivo or in situ experimentation can be all temperate phages form lysogens on all expensive. In addition, in vivo studies can be bacteria they are capable of infecting subject to ethical considerations, and this is so productively. None the less, at a minimum, a even if such experiments have a reasonable failure to produce clear plaques should be likelihood of successful outcome. For human taken as a red ﬂag with regard to the use of a testing, of course, these later considerations given phage isolate for phage-therapy are explicit, but issues of expense and purposes. The choice of using Although various authors have pre- temperate phages, however, must be justiﬁed sented in silico approaches to understanding in publications, and even defended. Given phage therapy processes, these methods are the association of bacterial toxin genes in neither well developed nor well tested for particular with temperate phages, it is also predictive accuracy (Gill, 2008). Less reasonable to expect greater levels of phage complicated approaches exist that can allow characterization by investigators who are researchers to calculate the minimum number using either temperate phages or phages that of supplied phages necessary to achieve are derived from temperate phages, that is, phage-therapy success (Abedon and Thomas- when employing phages that are not Abedon, 2010; Abedon, 2011a,b). These too, professionally lytic (Curtright and Abedon, however, are not always adequately robust 2011). This is additional characterization, means of phage characterization with regard particularly in terms of virulence factor to bacterial killing ability, as they may be encoding. Similarly, if bioﬁlms are explicitly produced complete clearing of the bacterial serving as antibacterial targets, then a phage’s cultures was then recorded. In part, Alternative approaches to measuring a this is because the later readily determines phage’s bacterial killing ability have been only a few log reduction in bacterial density. Further- should be able to atain at least 4 log more, unless actively designed to do so, in reductions, in vitro, over reasonable spans of vitro assays are not necessarily a measure of a time (Kasman et al. Clearly, it is hard to defend moving up or otherwise more costly in situ experi- to in vivo testing using phages for which this mentation, phages should at least display in substantial amount of bacterial killing has not vitro therapeutic abilities, such as 4 log been or cannot ﬁrst be demonstrated in vitro reductions in bacterial viable counts at phage using presumed in situ phage densities. In Thirdly, during in vitro testing, phage– any case, it is not so much that robust and bacterial community interactions should be eﬀective in vitro phage characterization is followed over relatively short time intervals crucial to successful phage therapy develop- so that bacterial growth, giving rise to ment but instead that such eﬀorts are cheaper, substantial increases in bacterial densities, less time-consuming and frankly more does not occur over the course of experi- humane than relying entirely on animal mentation. This means, in particular, that testing to characterize phage isolates for overnight incubations of phages with bacteria bacterial killing ability. Has bacterial colonization been typically preferable to end point determin- established prior to phage application? In particular, animal or other models that reasonably unless protocols have been designed represent the actual circumstances under speciﬁcally to test for the prevention of which phage therapy is envisaged. What initiation of bacterial infections (prophylaxis), constitutes a good model for in vivo or in situ then at a minimum multiple hours should phage therapy eﬃcacy? At a minimum, eﬀort separate bacterial challenge and subsequent should be made to make sure that bacterial phage addition (and if testing of prophylaxis colonization along with tissue invasiveness is envisioned, then phage addition should and other infection details occur to an extent precede bacterial challenge by a substantial that is similar to that seen with typical length of time rather than being simultaneous infection presentation (see, for example, Loc- or near simultaneous to bacterial application). For An alternative approach involves applying instance, if bioﬁlms are normally present, and phages and bacteria to diﬀerent body com- have developed for days, weeks or months partments, although determining whether prior to the onset of antibacterial treatment, such approaches are truly good models for then such bioﬁlms should also be present in determining phage-therapy eﬃcacy should the disease model employed to explore the be the subject of rigorous pharmacokinetic potential for phage-therapy eﬃcacy (Ramage testing rather than simply assumed. The ultimate indication of poor technique in terms of failing to allow establishment of Discussion bacterial colonization prior to phage application is the mixing of phages with Given the above considerations, I envisage a bacteria prior to bacterial challenge, although logical four-step process of initial phage- simultaneous or even just short delays therapy development: (i) rational phage between bacteria and phage addition should isolation including in terms of avoidance of also be viewed as suspect. Indeed, ofen the temperate phages as well as the carriage of result of such practices is what appear to be virulence-factor genes; (ii) in vitro phage bacterial reductions only to below minimal characterization for anti-bacterial virulence; lethal densities rather than a ‘curing’ of (iii) in vivo or in situ proof-of-principle eﬀorts existing disease. At a minimum, therefore, using models in which eﬃcacy is highly eﬀort should be made during phage-therapy expected while at the same time limitations experimentation to avoid mixing bacterial of technique may be identiﬁed (particularly challenges with phages in a manner that in terms of delays between bacterial challenge mimics phage–bacterial interactions as they and phage application); and then (iv) use of can occur in broth cultures. Usually such more realistic disease models to develop avoidance will be the case given substantial clinically useful therapeutic techniques, that delays between bacterial challenge and phage is, that improve on eﬃcacy at or beyond the addition. In short, the ﬁeld of further development of phage-therapy phage therapy, even in Western literature, protocols and/or a need for identiﬁcation of has moved beyond the point of proof of more eﬀective phages. Thus, would contrast with observation of reductions if animal experimentation is indicated, then in eﬃcacy – given substantial delays between that experimentation really ought to be bacterial challenge and phage application – properly done. This means, perhaps more serving instead as study end points, as too than anything else, that eﬀort should be ofen is the case in the phage-therapy made to improve the accuracy of disease literature. Abedon Ultimately phage-therapy protocols practice numbers 5–8, all of which involve need to be tested against naturally occurring questions of how to properly control as well infections, although in my opinion this as reduce biases during phage-therapy represents a later step in development. Step (vi) might then incorporate controls; that is, can a phage-therapy protocol, treatment of a small number of naturally under some approximation of the best of all occurring infections, representing essentially possible circumstances, achieve phage- a limited trial. Step (vii) would then entail a therapy eﬃcacy even if it fails to do so under fairly substantial trial, perhaps under more other, perhaps more clinically realistic, real-world conditions. This Animal testing of the treatment of human would particularly be the use of an diseases, however, may not always be approximation of passive treatment, meaning extendable beyond step (v). A Pseudomonas ear infections (see Burrowes and good rule-of-thumb deﬁnition of ‘enough’, Harper, Chapter 14, this volume, for ref- whether provided by active or passive means, erences). Here, the ﬁrst publication addressed may be the achievement of a density of at phage treatment of a naturally acquired least 109 phages ml–1 to the actual physical infection in a single dog, the ‘second’ publi- location of target bacteria, or at least 108 given cation considered the treatment of naturally somewhat ideal conditions (Abedon and acquired infections in ten additional dogs, the Thomas-Abedon, 2010; Abedon, 2011a,b, ‘third’ publication was a safety and limited 2012; Curtright and Abedon, 2011). The subject of controls during phage-therapy It should be strongly stressed that experimentation is complicated by the issue positive controls are most relevant, and of double blinding of well-designed clinical arguably perhaps only relevant, if phage- trials. Thus, in addition to researcher therapy protocols fail to otherwise achieve blinding, it is important not to overlook the reasonable levels of eﬃcacy (i. In other words, negative controls, positive controls and controlled experimental results generally are more variables. In this section, I consider best meaningful to the extent that positive Phage-therapy Best Practices 263 experimental results – phage-mediated result in poor outcomes under circumstances bacterial clearing positive controls – are in which antibiotics nevertheless are eﬀective, demonstrably possible, such as might be except that more eﬀort may need to be put achieved by adding more phages, employing into phage-therapy protocol development. Has a reasonable negative-treatment improve on experimental phage therapy control been used? None the ticularly should results otherwise prove less, the use of a reasonable negative control is disappointing. Thus, unquestionably important but only if those the negative control is an approximation of negative results are assuredly not simply a the normal phage-therapy protocol but one consequence of poor or otherwise insuﬃcient that allows a normal infection outcome, as experimental technique. Clearly, the negative results, there thus should always be easiest means of ataining this outcome is to concern that suﬃcient eﬀort has been made avoid applying phage formulations altogether. Above all, one This approach, however, is complicated by should always be worried that the phages the need to diﬀerentiate phage-associated employed were in some manner inadequate, therapy eﬃcacy from eﬃcacy that is associated that the doses used were in some manner instead with phage carriage material or other insuﬃcient or that the rates or duration of aspects of treatment protocols that might not dosing were to some degree in need of further be employed in the absence of phage increase. Particularly, non-phage compon- whether supplying more phages will result in ents of phage formulations can contain greater overall levels of bacterial killing. Therefore, as phage-therapy is not the only kind of positive control that is negative controls, it is beter practice to use possible in phage experiments.
In training for that race buy tadapox with paypal erectile dysfunction blogs forums, you’ll find that some days you feel better and can run faster than on other days tadapox 80 mg discount erectile dysfunction endovascular treatment. There’s no guarantee that you’ll run faster on day five of your training schedule than you did on day one. In fact, if you compare your performance on day one to your perfor- mance on day five and use just that measurement as your gauge of progress, you might think your running skills are worsening rather than improving. Chances are that your running will staying well 143 be better on day sixty of your training program than it was on day one. When you measure improvement, it’s important to use an appropriate time interval for comparison. If the intervals are too close together (like day one and day five), it may seem as though you’re making no progress or, even worse, that you’re regressing. Considering your progress over such a short time interval doesn’t take into account life’s normal ups and downs, and it may not pro- vide an accurate reflection of longer-term improvement. If you focus on these day-to-day variations, you may become discouraged and may even stop treatment early, all based on an unfair evaluation of your progress. These factors include avoid- ance, infrequent opportunities for exposure, life stresses, confronting new situations, and having a traumatic experi- ence or an unexpected fear reaction during an exposure. The impact of these pitfalls can be minimized if you recog- nize the problem early on and follow up with a helpful action plan aimed at overcoming these obstacles. Occasional ups and downs during treatment and even after treatment are normal and shouldn’t discourage you from continuing with what you started. The person’s decision to work on overcoming this fear may have been a difficult one to make. In doing so, that person knows there’s a risk of increased anxiety and discomfort in the short term in return for long-term freedom from the phobia. It’s important that you read this chapter, where we’ll outline some basic rules to help you be the most effective helper you can be. It’s also important that you read the rest of the book so that you have a thor- ough understanding of what’s involved in conquering a fear. A large part of the treatment’s success lies with you, and we want to give you the tools and guidance you need to help maximize this success. In helping someone face a fear, it’s helpful if you can imagine that person’s level of dis- comfort when faced with a phobic object or situation. Often, this may be difficult to do, especially if you don’t share that person’s fear. No matter how trivial or ridicu- lous the fear may seem to you, you must try to understand the person’s experience as well as you can. Now try to imagine how you’d feel if you deliberately exposed yourself to that situa- tion day after day. For the person you’re helping, the emotions are very real even if the anticipated danger is exaggerated. That means he or she decides what exposures will be done, when they will be done, and how long they’ll last. Exposures are supposed to be pre- dictable, which means that surprising a person with a feared object is not allowed, no matter how well- intentioned the action is. The person you’re helping for the helper 147 should know ahead of time everything that will happen during the exposure practice. It’s not unusual for a person confronting a fear to become discour- aged from time to time. An exposure exercise that didn’t go so well, an unexpected fear reaction, or a slow course of improvement can take a toll on the positive attitude of the person. You should be there to give words of encourage- ment and point out the successes along the way. You should maintain an objective point of view and help the person remember the reasons for doing this, especially when things seem tough. If, as a helper, you become dis- couraged during the rough patches, try not to let it show and try not to let it affect your outward display of a posi- tive attitude. As a helper, you should gently encourage the person who is facing a fear to push himself or herself to the limit, but you should never force the person to stay in a situation, hold an object, or watch an image longer than he or she has agreed to. Ask the person 148 overcoming medical phobias you’re working with how you can best provide encourage- ment to stay with an exposure if the fear becomes intense. The individual should know best what style of support he or she finds most motivating. Because these may cause extreme anxiety for the person being treated (especially at the start of treatment), you may have to prescreen some of the items to determine their suitability for exposure at various stages of the treat- ment. You may want to describe an image or a situation rather than show it to the person and have him or her decide what fear ranking to assign to that object or situa- tion based on your description. For example, if you’re helping someone with a fear of blood, you may prick your finger with a lancet while he or she watches. Second, watching you confront the situ- ation in a controlled, safe way will help model a positive for the helper 149 response and will educate the person about the real danger of the situation versus his or her belief about the degree of danger. It’s often easier to do something frightening if we watch someone we trust do it first. Before modeling a positive coping style, though, you need to make sure you don’t have a fear of the object or situation yourself, so you can guarantee that your reac- tion won’t be anxiety provoking. You may want to expose yourself to the object or situation ahead of time, in the absence of the person you’re helping. If you find you do have some minor fear, you might consider engaging in a few repeated exposure exercises yourself, before helping the person with the phobia. Therefore, it can be benefi- cial for you to help the phobic person monitor any thoughts that occur before and during the exposure. Help challenge unrealistic or exaggerated negative beliefs or predictions using the strategies described in chapter 7. For example, during an exposure exercise, you may want to ask such questions as “What are you thinking right now? Don’t tell other family members or friends about the treatment or about the details of the person’s phobia (unless the person you’re helping gives clear permission to do so). He or she has made a commitment to get over the fear and is relying on you to help. Although exposure is usually anxiety provoking and the work may be quite difficult at times, anything you for the helper 151 can do to make things more enjoyable will go a long way toward enhancing the treatment. When helping to design exposure practices, use your imagination to make the process as exciting, adventurous, and fun as possible. If a particular practice is too difficult, you can help the individual review the hierarchy and come up with items that may be more suit- able. Remind the person that the road to success is full of ups and downs and reinforce the idea that you’ll be there through those highs and lows.