K. Karlen. State University of New York at Oswego.
When the luminous compactness energy is absorbed by tissues (water constitutes around 70 % of the skin tissue volume) buy extra super levitra line erectile dysfunction herbal supplements, the phenomenon of “vaporiza- tion” occurs order extra super levitra 100 mg amex erectile dysfunction from adderall. This is associated to an area of residual thermal From the 1980s, the concept of surgical face rejuvenation, damage of decreasing entity depending on whether the pulse which so far was intended as detachments and tractions, is generated in continuous, pulsed, or superpulsed modality. A ray of light the threshold of cutaneous vaporization, the laser system opportunely transformed in heat could make the aging skin needs to generate 5 J/cm2. In particular, the residual coagula- lighter and more smooth and compact as well as stimulate its tive necrosis is minimal when the time of tissue exposure is elastic retraction in order to solve the mild to moderate- less than 1 ms, i. S cuola di specializzazione in Chirurgia Plastica , Università di Padova , Padova , Italy J ust like any other method, laser resurfacing treatments e-mail: info@arsmedicasrl. Perego mainly erythema, edema, hyper- and hypopigmentation of the Fitzpatrick classiﬁcation obtaining a simple level diagnos- skin, infection, and pathological scarring. As such, the industry tic table (Table 2) that allows us to insert the characteris- began studying new laser systems that were able to reduce the tics of the patient that we want to treat, giving us a practical residual thermal damage by removing the epidermal layers in a guide to reach the most complex target of this method: the progressive, controlled, and predictable manner. In addition, with the Simultaneously, systems with different wavelength were most recent laser devices, it is possible to dose with preci- developed. When the defect is limited to the superﬁcial epidermal D uring the last 10 years, ablative lasers have been ﬂanked layers (from 20 to 50 micron), it is sufﬁcient to dose one pas- by the so-called “non-ablative” lasers, which stimulate the sage of erbium laser with the same depth of action, while in ﬁbroblastic activity through an intradermal thermal insult case of defects that extend to the whole epidermis and the without epidermal ablation, and the “fractional” lasers [7 ], papillary dermis, multiple appropriately dosed passages are with whom small areas of removed tissue are alternated to necessary. Therefore, this is the answer to the question “what areas of intact tissue in order to obtain a more rapid healing. A precise knowledge of cutaneous histology allows us to know the potentialities and limits of a laser resurfacing proce- dure and to diagnose the level of the defect in order to choose the best laser option as well as the appropriate parameters. F fluence = S At the beginning the erbium lasers were mostly used for the treatment of patients with moderate-degree skin laxity The operative behavior should always refer to a series of and prevalence of “dyschromic aging. The growing development of technologies has leveled the • Special metallic (leaded) ocular protectors are positioned differences between the two main laser systems, so that the after applying an ophthalmic ointment. A mentation and pathological scarring (hypertrophic and/or reanimation kit with the possibility of intubation and deﬁ- keloid). Also the lower coagulative capacity of the erbium • A smoke aspirator is indispensable. Usually two to three passages are performed, with ﬂu- scab that would impede the migration of the epidermal cells. The latter is deﬁnitely should be completely removed at every passage in order to more comfortable for the patient that will experience a less limit the residual thermal damage and to observe with more intense burning feeling during the ﬁrst postoperative hours and precision the skin color after each passage. But then, an occlusive dressing can be responsible of is visible with the naked eye and in a progressively increas- a higher incidence of bacterial and mycotic infections. For this reason, some practitioners use a closed dressing T ypically the residual defects are then treated isolately by during the ﬁrst days, followed by an open dressing until the using small diameter spots without forgetting one of the complete healing. Also, with the same machine  I have another technical • E mit long pulses to create an area of dermal damage. Perego refreshing or a deep dermal stimulus with extremely reduced recovery times (Fig. Nevertheless, even in expert hands, it is pos- sible that a series of moderate to severe complications occur. It is therefore important to carefully follow the course of the heal- ing process in order to precociously diagnose a problem and to limit its evolution. It is frequent to observe irritative (contact) or allergic dermatitis, formation of milia, acne reacutization, and postinﬂammatory hyperpigmentations. Most severe complications, which luckily are rare, involve pathological scarring, ectropion, and disseminated infections. A delayed diagnosis can determine the formation of keloids, permanent depigmentation, and skin necrosis. Pearls and Pitfalls When a laser resurfacing treatment is performed for the ﬁrst time, prudence guides us to use conservative ﬂu- ences, proceeding gradually to the removal of epidermal layers, until an evident contraction is seen, which identi- ﬁes the reaching of the desired dermal level. First of all, we often • When isolated areas of the face are treated, the entire have a patient under local anesthesia or sedation; as such, a cosmetic unit should be treated. Secondly, it • Do not treat the canthal regions and the upper eyelid is useful to perform a ﬁrst test on a “safe” area of the face tarsus. After realizing the second and in case the third pas- sage, we should decide when to stop recognizing also Finally, rigorous criteria of patient selection should visually our “end point. T o day, with the aim of being formally informed about the possible risks of the surgical procedure that I wish to undergo, I have been given this consent, which I will return completely ﬁlled-in the day of surgery. The laser method allows to reach such target with several advantages: higher precision of action on the damaged skin layers, absence or minimal presence of bleeding, better post-operative course. The most commonly used laser is the Erbium Yag because it is more selective towards the skin: it emits a light beam that heats and vaporizes the skin, reaching the damaged layers with elevated selectivity. In many cases wrinkles appear in localized areas (eye contour, mouth) and the laser can be speciﬁcally used on these regions. Patients with olive, tanned or dark skin are at risk for pigmentation abnormalities, as such an attentive evaluation and a spe- ciﬁc skin preparation should be performed whenever you decide to undergo the procedure. Patients that have assumed Accutane (isotretinoin) during the last 12 months or that are prone to pathological scarring (i. The procedure of “Laser Skin Resurfacing” can improve the aspect of the face reducing the wrinkles, but only the static ones, while it cannot eliminate the dynamic wrinkles that depend on the mimical movements of the face and that require other surgical procedures to be treated. The procedure always requires an adequate skin preparation for at least three to four weeks and consists of the daily applica- tion of speciﬁc products. In case isolated areas of the face are treated local anesthesia is sufﬁcient, while for the treatment of the entire face an intra- venous sedation or general anesthesia will be added. Swelling is always present and its entity depends on both patient’s personal reactivity and depth of treatment, but it is usually reversible during the ﬁrst 7/15 days. U sually the skin is decisively redden on the ﬁrst 5/6 days to then become dark pink after the ﬁrst week and a lighter pink after the second week, until the reddening disappears within one or two months. In special cases and in delicate areas like the eyelids the reddening can last longer and require special treatments in order to fasten the process of normalization of the erythema. From the seventh day on usually most patients can apply a speciﬁc covering make-up. It is very important during the following three months to avoid sun exposure until the whole skin color is back to its normal aspect and to use a total block sun protection in any case. The achievement of an optimal aesthetic outcome can require several months, which are necessary for the production of col- lagen, however, when the reddening fades away the patient is already able to notice an evident improvement of skin quality. Despite the high degree of precision of the laser, not all the wrinkles or skin irregularities can be solved with one treatment and in many cases several treatments are needed in order to reach the desired results. It is important to know that the obtained result is not permanent because the new skin will not be unaffected by the aging processes. There is also the possibility of delayed skin healing processes, with the presence of pathological scars and areas of irrevers- ible hypopigmentation, usually due to an excessive depth of treatment.
Blunt-Force Injuries 255 One should look for steering wheel impact marks site better 100mg extra super levitra free shipping most effective erectile dysfunction pills, which is also associated with formation of a to the chest purchase genuine extra super levitra line erectile dysfunction keeping it up, seatbelt-related abraded contusions, and pocket of crushed tissue. It is good practice to include pattern injuries associated with impacts to the wind- the measuring ruler in the picture. Front and back wind- into whether the vehicle was braking before the impact shields are ofen made of laminated glass and fracture occurred because as this happens the front end of a car with elongated curves or splinters. Fractures may occur more readily to ofen made of tempered glass and fracture into small weight-bearing legs. Seatbelt-patterned injuries or side impact dicing interpret when the bone is splintered into many pieces. Dicing injuries to the lef side of the head of from the impact site, similar to a skull fracture from an an individual found next to a car with a broken lef side entrance gunshot wound producing internal beveling. Tis is caused by hyperextension of the hip seatbelts are much more likely to be ejected from the and leg in an anterior direction. Fast- ejected may impact other objects such as a tree or pole, moving vehicles tend to run under people, meaning or may sustain crush injuries due to the vehicle’s rolling afer being struck, the victim is tossed onto and over the over them. Other characteristic pattern-type injuries include Pedestrian clothing and impact sites to the body can faps of skin torn away as a tire passes over a body. Te reveal many clues with evidence about the circumstances clothing worn by the individuals struck by the vehicles of a collision. Questions one should ask include: Was the may yield signifcant evidence such as paint fragments. Te car may have fragments of blood and hair that can be Was the individual run over or run under by the vehicle? Impact sites may Tis can be useful when there are multiple pedestrians reveal diferent front grill or tire pattern injuries. Pedestrian collisions standing pedestrian impacts, one should measure the may involve children, who are sometimes impulsive, distance between the leg impact site and the bottom of careless, and may run out into oncoming trafc. Te shoe height including the heel size could sick, or intoxicated individuals may not be quick enough be added in estimating the pedestrian leg height at the to get out of the way of a car, or an individual with psy- time of the incident. It may be necessary to incise this chopathology, such as a homeless person, may think it is region of impact to the leg to visualize this hemorrhagic not dangerous to cross a busy freeway in the dark. These are defensive wounds by history but may have been caused by any blunt force trauma. Blunt force injury during struggle with grab- bing and bending of the nails backward. Note the bilateral periorbital ecchymosis associated with fracture of the anterior cranial fossa. Note the irregular margin at the point of skin separation due to the skin ripping apart. He was taking a group photograph and, while backing up, accidentally fell three stories to the pavement below. Note the extensive drying of the wound margins with clotted blood and frag- ments of hair. This individual had multiple layers of clothing and was reportedly stomped on by an individual with heavy boots following assaults with other weap- ons. The abraded contusion to the middle aspect of his chest forms a vague outline of a boot. The multiple layers of cloth- ing prevented a more discernible defned boot pattern. Note the parallel linear contu- sions at the superior aspect of the middle left thigh. Depression of the soft tissues contacting the rod causes stretching at each margin with blood vessel injury and parallel linear bruises. Note the pattern injury at the forehead and face with the shaft of the club extending at the inferior aspect. These abraded contusions at his face and head are characteristic of a baseball bat impact. Note the oval-shaped contusion with sparing of the central aspect with overlying abrasion. The decedent had a history of an unsteady gait associated with Parkinson’s disease and remote stroke. It was initially thought by investigators that she had fallen several times and possibly suffered a heart attack. Further examination of her scalp revealed more lacerations and impacts that were initially not observed at the scene due to poor lighting and dried blood matted in her scalp hair. Note the orbital contusion to her left eye, which is a recessed area of her face and not usually associated with a fall while striking a fat surface. It would be considered bad practice to bring a suspect’s hammer, not found at the scene, into the morgue for comparison to injuries due to possible risk of evidence contamination. Standard household hammer heads have a diameter of 3/4 to 1 inch, and the injuries on the skull tend to refect this. The blunt side of this toothbrush, in conjunction with peristalsis, eroded through the intestinal wall. Also note the healed lin- ear scar to the left due to a traumatic tearing of the earring from the ear lobe with complete separation and nonplastic surgical repair. The typical example of a bite mark reveals a circular pattern with a central region of contusion. It is good practice to consult a forensic dentist as soon as possible whenever a bite mark is suspected. The old bite mark is largely healed with hypopigmented white to gray scar from teeth being dragging across the skin surface. Note the roughly semicircular lacerations on the superior and inferior aspects of the cheek with the deeper lacerations of the lip revealing exposed underlying teeth. There was a large cylindrical storefront padlock within a tube sock found at the scene. There were multiple other pattern injuries to the decedent’s body consistent with these roughly circular impacts. Note the parallel linear marks consist of a portion of the handcuff indi- cated by the arrow (in Figure 6. Note the furrow pattern with red/brown vital reaction of these abrasions and contusions, which were associ- ated with struggle. He was found lying at the bot- ground he sustained this pattern injury by striking his tom of the escalator. He sustained multiple curvilinear lacerations and sharp force injuries from broken glass and impact with the car roof. This type of injury is consistent with an impact and fracture of tempered glass, which is present in many side windows. Rarely the presence of shoe sole patterns may be observed on the accelerator or brake pedals, indicating what the driver was doing at the time of the impact. Note the fragment of scalp with scalp hair imbedded in the top part of the windshield and adjacent car roof.
Lateral and superior retraction of the inferior pole of the spleen and division of the inferior pole vessels cheap extra super levitra 100mg overnight delivery erectile dysfunction hormones. This proceeds as for a Nissen fundoplication with the exception that the dissection is carried out much closer to the spleen than to the stomach (Chap 100 mg extra super levitra sale erectile dysfunction icd 9 code 2012. The frst assistant gently grasps the fatty tissue surrounding the short gastric vessels and retracts it superiorly, while the surgeon gently retracts the stomach to the right. This will expose the short gastric vessels, which are subsequently controlled with the harmonic shears. The division is then continued superiorly and then inferiorly until the tail of the pancreas is completely exposed (Fig. The frst assistant retracts the spleen superiorly and laterally with a closed Babcock clamp to expose the splenic fexure of the colon. The surgeon’s left hand retracts the transverse colon inferi- orly, exposing the splenocolic ligament. The ligament is divided using the harmonic shears to allow safe dissection of the inferior pole of the spleen. Once the splenocolic ligament has been divided, lateral and superior retraction will expose the inferior pole vessels that branch from the main splenic vessels. The inferior pole vessels are divided at this point, permitting full mobilization of the inferior pole of the spleen. We do not recommend the use of the harmonic shears on these vessels, as it will not achieve effcient hemostasis. Uncontrollable bleeding from these vessels can result in an early conversion to open surgery. Division of the Hilar Vessels and Phrenic Attachments In order to expose the hilar vessels, opposing retraction by the frst assistant and the surgeon is required. The frst assistant retracts the mobilized inferior pole of the spleen superiorly and laterally. The surgeon gently pushes the exposed tail of the pancreas down, creating access to the hilum and the main splenic vessels (Fig. Division of the hilar artery and vein is a critical step that should be performed meticulously and carefully to avoid any bleeding. The surgeon has two choices for ligation of the splenic vessels at the hilum of the spleen: transection of the vessels with one fring of a 30-mm Endolinear cutter using vascular staples (Fig. Using a combination of clips and staplers should also be done very cautiously, as clips can result in misfring of the stapler and subsequent bleed- ing from a partially divided vessel. Finally, the attachments of the spleen to the diaphragm are divided, allowing full mobilization of the spleen. Extraction of the Spleen in a Bag The next step is introduction of the retrieval bag. A good trick is to push the bag to the diaphragm with the opening of the bag facing the surgeon. This will allow introduction of the spleen into the bag using a “surfng” technique. The spleen is grabbed by its attach- ments and rolled onto its back, using hilar and fatty attachments as a handle. The fascia of the umbilical port can be slightly enlarged to allow extraction of the bag. The introduction of two fngers (or a Kelly clamp) to squeeze the spleen between the fngers and the anterior abdominal wall will enable morcellation of the spleen and extraction of both the bag and the splenic fragments. One should be careful not to drop any fragments in the abdomen, which can lead to splenosis and recurrent disease. This depends on the surgeon’s experience and in particular on the degree of trauma to the tail of the pancreas during the dissection. If a drain is used, it should be taken out through a separate incision to avoid herniation of the small bowel while removing the drain through a large port site. The beneft of this approach is improved exposure of the hilar vessels compared to the anterior approach; however, in the anterior approach, the hilar vessels are controlled earlier in the procedure, which reduces the risk of uncontrollable bleeding later in the procedure. The surgeon begins the procedure by taking down the inferior pole vessels, as described for the anterior approach. After division of these vessels, the spleen is gently retracted medially and the splenophrenic ligament is divided using the harmonic shears (Fig. This dis- section continues superiorly until the short gastric vessels are encountered. Careful dissec- tion of the splenorenal ligament is done at this point, with extreme attention given to avoid injury to the left adrenal gland. Next, the short gastric vessels are divided using the har- monic shears and clips as needed. The hilar vessels will now be in view, and can be dis- sected with a right angle dissector before being divided separately or together with a vascular endo cutter (Fig. Amylase and lipase levels should be checked on the frst postoperative day to ensure there has been no pancreatic injury during the operation. A clear liquid diet is initiated if the levels are normal, and the patient can be discharged home once the diet has been tolerated. Two etiologies are possible: Bleeding from an unnamed vessel, such as a short gastric vessel or a branch of the inferior or superior pole vessels. Irrigation and aspiration of the surgical site should follow to evaluate the rate of bleed- ing. Sometimes, elec- trocautery will control the situation and allow safe placement of the clips. Compression using a laparoscopic 2 × 2 cm gauze can control the bleeding, allowing the operative site to be cleaned in preparation for hemostasis. Control of a Major Vessel The situation is different when a major vessel is injured. Examples are the splenic vein or artery, or the direct terminal branches of the main trunk. Flow is usually very high in these vessels, and blood reaching the left upper quadrant of the abdomen will obscure the view. In these circumstances, one can try to control the bleeding using the steps described previously, using a larger atraumatic instrument such as a bowel clamp to grasp the whole hilum. If this is not successful, it is usually wise to convert the patient rapidly through an open left subcostal incision. Splenic Injury Another possibility is an injury to the spleen itself during the dissection. Although resultant bleeding may obscure the dissection, simple compression with a 2 × 2-cm surgical gauze together with appropriate electrocautery should control bleeding.
If the bypass tract is opposite the site of ventricular stimulation purchase 100 mg extra super levitra impotence vitamins supplements, the V-A interval prolongs during pacing purchase genuine extra super levitra line impotence natural food. This can be readily accomplished by observing the response to ventricular pacing during the tachycardia. One must be careful to exclude a “pseudo–V-A-A-V response” produced by a very long V-A, which exceeds the paced cycle P. This can be recognized because the first “A” of the “pseudo”–V- A-A-V response occurs at the paced cycle length. Another reason for a pseudo–V-A-A-V response is A-V nodal tachycardia with a long H-V such that the A occurs before the V (Fig. These responses require intact V-A conduction which is present in perhaps 80% of patients in the absence of bypass tracts. The only difference is the lengthening of V-A intervals, which is characteristic of left-sided bypass tracts during right ventricular pacing. In each panel ventricular overdrive pacing demonstrating retrograde conduction is shown in blue. Recordings should be made using a multipolar catheter and, if possible, one should try to bracket the earliest; that is, demonstrate later activation on either side of the earliest site. In such cases more distal left atrial sites must be mapped through a patent foramen ovale or via a transseptal approach (Fig. Thus, careful mapping of multiple sites around the tricuspid and mitral valves is required for proper diagnosis. This may require a superior vena cava approach and/or the use of catheters with deflectable tips. Specially designed multipolar catheters that can record around the tricuspid ring can be especially useful. This could be a specially designed “halo” catheter or a deflectable 10–20-pole catheter which can be positioned around the tricuspid annulus. While some investigators have employed a fine catheter in the right coronary artery, the potential for endocardial damage and subsequent long-term development of coronary atherosclerosis exists; therefore, I believe this technique should be avoided. As expected, the V-A intervals measured from intracardiac electrograms are more accurate than R-P intervals. The shortest V-A interval we have observed in a septal bypass tract in an adult patient is 70 msec. This is nearly identical to the data of Ross and Uther,124 who found that a V-A interval of 60 msec was the best value to discriminate between the two. Upon cessation of pacing there is a V-A-A- V response prior to resumption of the tachycardia. B: Ventricular pacing is associated with retrograde conduction, but upon cessation of pacing the tachycardia resumes following a V-A-V response. The former response is diagnostic of atrial tachycardia, and the latter excludes it. An easy way to do this is to note the response to ventricular stimulation during the tachycardia. An exception to this can occur if there are dual A-V nodal pathways and ventricular pacing shifts antegrade conduction to the slow pathway, yielding a long postpacing cycle. This can be sorted out by comparing the V-A interval during pacing to that during the tachycardia. Finally, para-Hisian pacing can be used to document the presence of an accessory pathway; when a septal pathway is present the St-A will be the same with His capture and pure ventricular capture; while if an accessory pathway is absent, a marked difference between stimulus to A when His capture is lost and pure ventricular pacing ensues. All of the maneuvers discussed above are not useful in the presence of very decremental pathways or left free-wall pathways. In the presence of a septal accessory pathway the difference always is more positive than 30 msec. A limitation of this method is that the H-A interval cannot be measured during ventricular pacing in approximately 15% of cases. Because retrograde activation of the His and the atrium occur in parallel during ventricular pacing, the H-A interval is shorter than that during the tachycardia. Note earliest activation is in the lateral left atrium with spread to the superior and inferior left atrium thereafter. Note the extremely short V-A interval of 70 msec despite the lateral location of the bypass tract. The V-A interval is 60 msec, showing within a range of 5% of patients with A-V nodal reentry. Moreover it is not useful in the presence of decremental pathways and should not be used if a decremental bypass tract is a possibility. This is because retrograde conduction up the normal conducting system is faster than over the decremental bypass tract (Fig. In the presence of a left-sided pathway, it is unnecessary and can be very misleading. A delta H-A interval of +10 msec would accurately identify all patients with A-V nodal reentry and those with septal bypass tracts with no false-positives. When a retrograde His deflection cannot be seen during ventricular pacing, one can use the H-A interval minus V-A interval during ventricular pacing to distinguish A-V nodal reentry from septal bypass tracts. Of note, we have almost as many left free wall slowly conducting bypass tracts as septal. Although the distribution of bypass tracts in patients with and without pre-excitation is similar, we have a much higher incidence of multiple bypass tracts in patients with overt pre- excitation (25% vs. These findings are consistent with data from other investigators15,16,123,124,144 and are particularly true with left bundle branch block aberration. In Figure 8-113, both left and right bundle branch block are induced in the same patient. In both instances, aberration rapidly diminishes, suggesting a normal response of His–Purkinje system refractoriness to shortened cycle length. The ability to achieve short H1-H2 intervals due to enhanced A-V nodal conduction may be responsible for the development of aberration when His–Purkinje refractoriness is normal. Another possible explanation, particularly in the case of left bundle branch block, is that the patient population is selected. The V-A interval is longer during apical pacing than basal pacing because of proximity of the ventricular insertion of the bypass tract to the tricuspid annulus. Aberration is more likely when stimulation is performed during sinus rhythm or during long drive cycle lengths during which His– Purkinje refractoriness is longest and A-V nodal conduction and refractoriness are shortest. In addition, during atrial stimulation, right bundle branch block is twice as common as left bundle branch block, while during right ventricular stimulation, the type of aberration is almost always left bundle branch block. The response to atrial stimulation merely reflects the normal differences of refractoriness of the right and left bundle branch. During right ventricular stimulation, initiation of left bundle branch block aberration, either directly from V2 or from a bundle branch reentrant complex, results from retrograde concealment in the left bundle branch (Fig. In this situation, the left bundle branch will always recover after the right bundle branch; therefore, if aberration occurs it will always take the form of left bundle branch block P.